CK blood test
A Creatinine Kinase test is a blood test that measures the levels of Creatinine phosphokinase (CPK). It is an enzyme found predominantly in the heart tissue, brain and skeletal muscle. The CK blood test is commonly used to diagnose the existence of heart muscle damage. The CK blood test result shows an increase above normal in a person's blood test about six hours after the start of a heart attack.
It reaches its peak in about 18 hours and returns to normal in 24 to 36 hours. When the total CPK level is substantially elevated, then it is indicative of injury or stress to heart, brain or skeletal areas. The small amount of CPK that is normally in the blood comes from the muscles. The CPK blood test also helps in cost-effective management of people with suspected coronary atherosclerosis. It also evaluates the extent of muscle damage caused by drugs, trauma or immobility.
Abnormal CK-MB (one of three CK isoenzymes) or troponin levels are associated with Myocyte Necrosis and the diagnosis of Myocardial infarction. The Cardiac Markers of Cardiac Myocyte Necrosis (damage to the Cardiac muscle cells), myoglobin, CK, CK-MB and troponin I and T are primarily used to identify acute Myocardial Infarction.
It is used in early detection of dermatomyositis and polymyositis. It is also used to distinguish malignant hyperthermia from a post operative infection. It helps to discover carriers of muscular dystrophy.
The normal range for Creatinine Kinase (CK or CPK) blood test:
Male: 38 - 174 units/L
Female: 96 - 140 units/L
Increased levels of CK also can be found in viral myositis and hypothyroidism. Higher than normal CPK levels is indicative of the following conditions:
Serum CKMB levels are tested to check for myocardial injury. It is another important cardiac marker. The primary source of CKMB is myocardium although it is also found in skeletal muscle. Typically CKMB tests have now been replaced by Troponin test. But in cases of abnormal Troponin assay results or suspected re-infarction in the hospital, the CKMB serum test is still used.
High levels of CK MB are noticed in cases of polymyositis and rhabdomyolysis. Patients suffering pulmonary embolism, hypothyroidism, and muscular dystrophy or carbon monoxide poisoning can also show higher levels of serum CKMB. The reference range is about 56.2 pg/mL.
Diclofenac is a NSAID used as an Analgesic for musculoskeletal inflammatory disorders ranging from Arthritis, Dermatomyositis and Ankylosing Spondylitis. Diclofenac (trade name: Voltaren) is useful for pain management when there is inflammation. As this pain killer is effective in managing inflammation, diclofenac is also available for topical applications - sprain and contusion.
Side Effects: Diclofenac is usually well tolerated in short term usage. Other than the usual gastric irritation associated with the use of NSAID, diclofenac in some cases can increase the risk of liver necrosis, fulminant hepatitis and Jaundice. Long term usage of Diclofenac may result in Renal impairment.
Dosage: For Pain management in Adults: 50mg tablets 3 times a day subject to a maximum of 150mg per day.
Myopathy or muscular disease that includes muscle inflammation and muscle weakness. Myopathies affecting the skeletal muscle can have many origins - inherited, drug induced or endocrine issues. Mostly a Myopathy is transitory in nature and rarely results in complete loss of function. Muscular Dystrophy is possibly an exception in that it can be severe and sometimes even fatal if it occurs early in life.
These inherited Myopathies occur due to a genetic defect in the synthesis of a protein. There are many kinds in genetic Myopathies:
Endocrine related Myopathies : Hormone deficiency can cause Myopathies. Hyperthyroid Myopathy is the result of excess secretion of thyroxine from the thyroid gland affecting muscles in the shoulders, hips or eyes. Hypothyroid Myopathy occurs when too little hormone is secreted and results in stiffness, cramps and weakness of legs and arms muscles.
Inflammatory Myopathies : Some Myopathies result in inflamed, weakened or wasted muscles. Dermatomyositis affects the connective tissue and the severity of the affected muscle loss can result in crippling movement.
Chronic muscle inflammation is called as Myositis. It is usually caused due to allergic reaction, infectious disease or rheumatism. Sometimes Myopathies are hereditary. Symptoms of Myopathy can also include cramps, spasms and stiffness. There is progressive deterioration in muscle strength resulting in pain and fatigue on walking and tripping and falling. This is not due to nerve dysfunction. Some patients might notice facial weakness, foot drop, droopy eyelids and poor reflexes in affected muscles.
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Bibliography / Reference
Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: December 9, 2019