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Rheumatism

Rheumatism is a term used to refer to a host of disorders dealing with the joints and connective tissues. Major rheumatic disorders include Osteoarthritis, Ankylosing spondylitis, bursitis, Rheumatoid arthritis and neck pain. Rheumatism can affect adults and adolescents. Rheumatic disorders cause chronic pain and are not easy to treat. Painkillers are prescribed to alleviate the pain associated with rheumatism. Other associated symptoms are stiffness of affected joints, soreness and worsening of pain in conditions of humidity and rains. There might be periods of relief and then flare ups called rheumatic attack. The affected joints become red and swell up and turn red and warm. Usually movement increases the pain.

Myopathy

Myopathy or muscular disease that includes muscle inflammation and muscle weakness. Myopathies affecting the skeletal muscle can have many origins - inherited, drug induced or endocrine issues. Mostly a Myopathy is transitory in nature and rarely results in complete loss of function. Muscular Dystrophy is possibly an exception in that it can be severe and sometimes even fatal if it occurs early in life.


Genetic Myopathies

These inherited Myopathies occur due to a genetic defect in the synthesis of a protein. There are many kinds in genetic Myopathies:


  • Central Core Disease : Weakness in the muscles affecting hips and legs resulting in problems in running, jumping and climbing stairs

  • Centronuclear Myopathy or Myotubular Myopathy : Weakness in the muscles affecting face, legs, arms and the trunk resulting in drooping upper eyelids, facial weakness or foot drop

  • Myotonia Congenita : Muscles in the face, arms or legs are affected and result in muscular stiffness (myotonia) after contracting of muscles - usually after a trigger in the form of stress, fatigue, cold or a long period of no motion

  • Nemaline Myopathy : Weakness in the muscles of arms, legs and the trunk resulting in poor or absent reflexes, long or narrow face, abnormal facial features

  • Paramyotonia Congenita : Stiffness of muscles in the face, forearms and hands

  • Periodic Paralysis : Temporary muscle weakness episodes in hypokalemic form (low calcium) as a result of vigorous exercises, intake of food high in carbohydrates, stress, alcohol, insulin, pregnancy or infection. In the hyperkalemic form (high calcium) it can occur as a result of vigorous exercises, stress, pregnancy, skipping food, high potassium levels or steroids

  • Mitochondrial Myopathies : Progressive weakness of muscles in the eye (ocular myopathy) or arms and the legs or multisystem issues


Endocrine related Myopathies : Hormone deficiency can cause Myopathies. Hyperthyroid Myopathy is the result of excess secretion of thyroxine from the thyroid gland affecting muscles in the shoulders, hips or eyes. Hypothyroid Myopathy occurs when too little hormone is secreted and results in stiffness, cramps and weakness of legs and arms muscles.


Inflammatory Myopathies : Some Myopathies result in inflamed, weakened or wasted muscles. Dermatomyositis affects the connective tissue and the severity of the affected muscle loss can result in crippling movement.

Chronic muscle inflammation is called as Myositis. It is usually caused due to allergic reaction, infectious disease or rheumatism. Sometimes Myopathies are hereditary. Symptoms of Myopathy can also include cramps, spasms and stiffness. There is progressive deterioration in muscle strength resulting in pain and fatigue on walking and tripping and falling. This is not due to nerve dysfunction. Some patients might notice facial weakness, foot drop, droopy eyelids and poor reflexes in affected muscles.



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Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: August 21, 2019