Anemia stands for 'without blood' in Greek. When the number of red blood cells (RBC) falls below normal, Anemia is a resultant condition. Hemoglobin is an important constituent of RBC. Hemoglobin usually occurs in the range of 12 and 18 g/dL (grams per deciliter of blood). If the hemoglobin levels show a decrease, anemic conditions set in. Consequently, the various organs and tissues of the body do not receive adequate oxygen on account of the diminished oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. This impairs their normal functioning. Usually women have smaller stores of iron than men. Besides, they also lose blood during menstruation making them primary targets for anemia.
World Health Organization (WHO) defines anemia as a hemoglobin level lower than 13 g/dL in men and lower than 12 g/dL in women. It is essential to be familiar with the typical symptoms of anemia. Although over 400 various types of Anemia have been identified, most of them are quite rare.
Often anemia is misdiagnosed and left untreated. An anemic person is likely to feel extremely tired and weak. This is accompanied with dizziness and breathlessness. A person suffering from anemia tends to appear pale and experience feelings of depression. In some cases, anemia can lead to heart ailments too.
Causes of Anemia
Types of Anemia
Iron deficiency Anemia - Nearly 20% adult women tend to suffer from this form of anemia. Loss of blood due to menstruation is not compensated with an iron-rich diet. Pregnancy and breast feeding can also deplete iron stores. Iron deficiency anemia is also noticed during growth spurts or internal bleeding.
Aplastic anemia - When the bone marrow does not produce sufficient quantities of blood cells, aplastic anemia is noticed. Childhood cancers such as leukemia are often responsible for this form of anemia. Other possible causes of aplastic anemia are radiation, cancer or antiseizure medications and chronic diseases such as thyroid or kidney malfunction. Treatment for aplastic anemia involves blood transfusions and bone marrow transplant. This is done to replace malfunctioning cells with healthy ones.
Vitamin deficiency anemia - Low levels of folic acid lead to faulty absorption of iron. Anemia caused due to folic acid deficiency is called Megaloblastic anemia. Pregnancy doubles the body requirements of folic acid and it is imperative that pregnant women take folic acid supplements. Good dietary sources of folate are fresh fruits, green leafy vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, liver and kidney, dairy products and whole grain cereals. Vegetables should be eaten raw or lightly cooked.Folic acid anemia is also a common problem faced by alcoholics. Vitamin B-12 deficiency can lead to a condition of Pernicious anemia. Diseases such as thyroid malfunction or diabetes mellitus can affect the body's ability to absorb vitamin B-12. This vitamin is vital in the production of hemoglobin.
Vitamin C Deficiency Anemia is a rare form of Anemia that is the result of small red cells owing to prolonged dietary deficiency of the Vitamin C.
Thalassemia anemia - Thalassemia or Cooleys Disease is a hereditary disorder found predominantly in people of South East Asian, Greek and Italian racial groups. This form of anemia is seen in differing degrees as Thalassemia encompasses a group of related disorders that affect the human body in similar ways. The most common occurrences of Thalassemia are alpha and beta thalassemia. Thalassemia anemia is characterized by symptoms like jaundice, enlarged spleen, shortness of breath and facial bone deformities.
Sickle Cell Anemia
Sickle cell anemia is a hereditary condition characterized by destruction of red blood cells in the body. It is noticed that sickle cell anemia affects people of African ancestry and those of Mediterranean and Middle Eastern descent. Sickle cell anemia is a condition where the red blood cells change shape, from their original flexible round shape to a sickle or crescent shape. These irregular blood cells do not move smoothly. Instead they clog blood cells on account of their shape and consequently there is deprived oxygen to various body parts.
The soft round red blood cells develop an abnormal shape that resembles a sickle or crescent moon. Their shape stops them from flowing easily and they get clogged up inside smaller blood vessels. This stops the blood from flowing properly. Important organs like the brain, heart, or kidneys need constant blood flow to stay healthy. Although our body attacks and destroys these sickle cells, it can't make new blood cells fast enough to replace the older ones. This results in the decrease in number of red blood cells leading to anemia. Sickle cell anemia is generally caused by genetic defects or disease. A child with sickle cell anemia has inherited a defective hemoglobin gene.
Sickle shaped blood cells get stuck within the small blood vessels and obstruct blood flow to some parts of the body, thereby leading to pain. Symptoms of sickle cell anemia include fatigue, breathlessness, rapid heart rate, delayed growth and puberty, susceptibility to infections, excessive penis pain, chest pain and decreased fertility. Since the spleen is damaged by the sickle cells, the resistance to infections is reduced considerably. Hands and feet tend to swell (Hand-foot syndrome) and the body faces stunted growth. Retinal damage can occur due to the obstruction of blood flow to the eyes. In about 10% of the cases, a stroke can occur if the sickle cells block blood vessels in the brain. Acute chest syndrome is another complication of this form of anemia. In this condition, the patient suffers symptoms similar to pneumonia and will need to be treated in a hospital.
There is no cure for sickle cell anemia but treatment can be followed to prevent complications and improve the quality of life of the patient. The patient will need to be under the guidance and care of a hematologist or genetic counselor. Blood test for hemoglobin 5 gives an indication as to the presence of this disease. A microscopic analysis of a blood sample will exhibit the distinctly shaped sickle cells. Bone marrow transplant can offer potential cure for this form of anemia, provided the right donor is found. Red blood cells from a donor can be given intravenously to a patient. But it carries inherent risks. Penicillin is given to keep young affected kids from life-threatening infections. Painkillers like acetaminophen and ibuprofen can relieve the pain associated with sickle cell anemia. Children diagnosed with sickle cell anemia must be given regular childhood vaccinations as well as Hib (Hemophilus influenzae B) vaccine and the pneumococcal vaccine.
Hemolytic anemia is a kind of anemia that occurs when there is high rate of destruction of RBC. Infections of Streptococcus or other conditions can lead the body to destroy its own RBC. Persons suffering hemolytic condition might experience severe fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath and chest pain. A complete blood count can help in identifying hemolytic anemia. Hemolytic anemia is treated with lifestyle changes and medicines. In more severe cases blood transfusion and plasmapheresis might be resorted to.
Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia : Warm antibody hemolytic anemia, one of the most common types afflicting women, results when the body produces auto antibodies that coat red blood cells which in turn are destroyed by the spleen, liver or bone marrow. Many of these patients also have leukemia, lupus, lymphoma or connective tissue disease. In cold antibody hemolytic anemia, the body targets red blood cells at or below normal body temperature - often to patients who have had pneumonia, mononucleosis or other acute infections. Exposure to cold temperatures can accelerate red blood cell destruction resulting in fatigue, discoloration of limbs and joint pains.
Sideroblastic Anemia: In this anemia, the body has sufficient iron but it fails to incorporate it into hemoglobin.
A complete blood count test will test for hemoglobin levels and display an anemic condition. But often anemia is a symptom whose cause lies deeper. The cause and type of anemia will determine the treatment that is needed. A stool test will help in detecting occult blood. Hemoglobin electrophoresis is a blood test that helps identify abnormal hemoglobin. Diagnosing thalassemia or sickle cell anemia becomes possible with this test.
Deficiency can be treated with supplements of iron, Vitamin B-12 and Vitamin C. Partaking an iron-rich diet can be beneficial for those suffering from nutritional deficiency anemia. Seafood, nuts, whole grains and dried fruits such as raisins, prunes and apricots are rich in iron. Ensure adequate consumption of Vitamin C as it aids and stimulates iron absorption. Try and combine citrus foods with iron-rich foods - add tomatoes to a turkey sandwich or chopped strawberries with iron-fortified breakfast cereals.
Bibliography / Reference
Collection of Pages - Last Modified Date: 16th Nov,2018
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