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The keen focus in the study of endocrinology is on the endocrine organs such as the pituitary, adrenals, thyroid, testes, ovaries and pancreas. The most important function of these organs is to secrete hormones and in balanced levels. Human body does not always secrete balanced levels of hormones from these glands and thus a hormonal imbalance occurs. This hormonal imbalance is called as endocrinopathy or endocrinosis, this field of study points out the functioning and how to fix the malfunctioning of any of the endocrine glands. A doctor who specializes in the treatment of endocrine disorders is called an endocrinologist. The doctor specializes in fields such as diabetes (malfunctioning of the pancreas), hyperthyroidism (malfunctioning of the thyroid glands) etc.

After completion of medical school, and after three to four years of internship and residency, further specialization of two or three years is needed. Special branches of endocrinologists:


An ophthalmologist combines the diagnostic skills of a clinician, the therapeutic skills of a physician, technical skills of a micro surgeon and psychiatric skills in understanding the patient's psychology in one. Since the eye is structured in such a way that its components are transparent, the ophthalmologist is able to observe directly and read the abnormalities in a manner which is not possible for any other parts of the human body.

Professional qualifications for an ophthalmologist

Ophthalmologists are medical doctors who have completed medical school and four years training schedule in ophthalmology after medical school. An ophthalmologist can be a medical doctor with an M.D. degree in ophthalmology or doctors of osteopathy D.O. In the US, four years of training after medical school is a must. The first year is an internship and then three years of training in ophthalmology in a residency program approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education. An ophthalmologist may develop expertise in a sub-specialty such as:

  • Corneal disease
  • Retina and vitreous disease
  • Glaucoma
  • Pediatric eye problems
  • Plastic surgery

Services rendered by an ophthalmologist

By convention, an ophthalmologist specializes in the medical and surgical care of the eyes. The ophthalmologist aids in prevention of eye diseases and injury to the visual system. The full spectrum of care rendered by an ophthalmologist includes:

  • Routine eye examinations
  • diagnosis
  • Medical treatment of eye disorders and diseases
  • Prescription for eye glasses
  • Surgery
  • Management of eye problems caused by systemic illnesses

Eye surgeon

An ophthalmologist often performs surgery to prevent or improve vision related conditions. A variety of lasers are used nowadays to perform out-patient procedures which previously required admission to hospital. Also tremendous improvements in microsurgical instrumentation have led to development of operations not considered possible a decade ago. An increasing number of such surgeries are being performed by local anesthesia. The surgical work of a general ophthalmologist includes:

  • Cataract extraction
  • Squint surgery
  • Glaucoma surgery
  • Retinal, oculoplastic and nasolacrimal surgery

Some common emergency of the eye that require immediate intervention by an ophthalmologist are:

  • simple foreign body on the eye
  • chemical burns
  • angle closure
  • glaucoma
  • retinal detachment

Medical ophthalmologist

A medical ophthalmologist generally does not perform surgery. The sphere of interest embraces:

  • Diabetes and Endocrinology including laser treatment for diabetic retinopathy
  • Vascular disease of the eye
  • Uveitis
  • AIDS
  • Ramifications of dermatological and rheumatological disorders
  • Pediatric ophthalmology
  • Neuro ophthalmology
  • Genetics

Pediatric Endocrinologist

Pediatric endocrinologists specialize in child related developmental problems. Pediatric endocrinologists are specialists in physical and sexual growth developments in children and specialize in childhood diabetes and other endocrine gland disorders. The most commonly faced endocrine problems in children are Type I diabetes, growth hormone treatment, intersexes disorders, hypoglycemia and puberty problems.

After completion of medical school and internship and after a three-year pediatric residency, a period of three years is spent to specialize in pediatric endocrinology. Pediatric endocrinologists help in:

  • Problems related to early or delayed puberty
  • Growth problems such as height related problems
  • Thyroid problems
  • Intersex problems
  • Pituitary, Adrenal gland problems
  • Ovarian or testicular problems

Tags: #Endocrinologist #Ophthalmologist #Pediatric Endocrinologist
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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: May 25, 2024