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Blood drug test

Blood drug tests are conducted to check for any traces of barbiturates or drug abuse. Blood is drawn from a vein on the inside of the elbow as is the case with other blood tests. Blood drug tests are used to screen for presence of illegal drugs or overdose or poisoning. Drug abuse of substances such as cocaine, heroin as well as overdose of amphetamines, benzodiazepines, phencyclidine and codeine can be analyzed with a blood drug test. The presence of illegal drugs or drugs not prescribed for the person indicated by a blood drug test can be suggestive of illicit drug use. Blood drug tests are conducted to monitor drug abuse cases, delirium and dementia.

Convulsions

Seizures or convulsions are associated with the electrical activity of the brain. They have an impact on major systems of the body and can be fatal if not treated. Seizures are classified predominantly based upon their site of occurrence and the affected organ or system.

Types of Convulsions

General or clonic seizures: In most cases, generalized seizures are also called as tonic-clonic seizures as they involve the entire body. In common parlance, it also referred as epileptic attacks. Patients experience changes in sensations such touch, taste, smell and vision. Hallucinations or auras are also experienced as they begin to influence the emotional balance of a person.

Focal or Partial seizures: These types of seizures are cause because of disturbed electrical activity in the brain which is localized to one part of the brain. It acts on the temporal region of the brain leading loss of memory and balance in extreme conditions.

Petit mal Seizures: These are temporary and their effects are usually limited to 20 seconds. They generate temporary muscle spasms which happen because of electrical imbalances in the brain.

Epilepsy: This type of seizure is closely related to general seizures. The factors associated with the onset of epilepsy may include preexisting conditions such as ischemic heart disease, Alzheimer disease, meningitis and encephalitis.

Fever induced convulsions: These types of seizures predominantly occur in children, infants and toddlers. The initial phase of these convulsions is very intense as they cause much discomfort to the child. They usually subside within a few hours. Most of the fever induced convulsions are caused by viruses and ear infections.

Clinical manifestations

Most convulsions or seizures are characterized by classical muscle spasm symptoms which includes rigorous shaking and frothing with prolonged effects like unconsciousness (blackout). Since the predominant reason associated with convulsions are related to the electrophysiology of the brain, neurological symptoms such as confusion, hallucination, dementia, drooling, lack of bladder control and sudden loss of balance may also be noticed.

Convulsions also have effects on the emotions of a person as many people complain of unprecedented symptoms such as sudden aggression, depression, mood swings, panic, extreme laughter and joy for a temporary period of time. Warning signs often appear before any form of seizure such as dizziness, sensitivity to light, vertigo and nausea.

Seizures can also occur as a result of withdrawal from use of drugs such as barbiturates, valium or benzodiazepines. Drug abuse and alcohol abuse along with preexisting health complications such as end-stage renal disease, renal failure and congenital heart disease can indicate high percentage of seizure onset. Seizures also occur in conditions such as Steven Johnson syndrome, a disease occurring in children. In addition to these clinical manifestations, seizures can occur because of severe brain injury, shock or even during athletic events as result of extreme adrenaline levels in the blood.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Epileptics are diagnosed with a meticulous examination of their history. Various biochemical tests such as sodium levels, SGOT, SGPT and blood glucose levels are analyzed. Electro encephalogram is done to understand the electrophysiology of the brain. In some cases, neurologists recommend MRI and CT scans to understand the presence of any abnormalities or to identify any kind of trauma caused in the brain or the spinal cord.

In most cases seizures are treated with antidepressants as the predominant cause of any form of seizure is depression. Anti epileptic drugs such as sodium channel blockers and GABA transaminase inhibitors are recommended.


Miscarriage

One of the most difficult things a woman can perhaps experience is the loss of a fetus. But it is an occurrence experienced by many women who conceive. The statistics are sketchy, but most cited references confirm that 10 to 25% of pregnancies result in a miscarriage. But perhaps the more painful experience is to lose an unborn child more than once.


Causes for miscarriage

Anatomical Reasons:Sometimes a woman's uterus is built in a way that makes a successful pregnancy a difficult if not impossible task. Abnormal uterine shape or weak cervixes are predominant anatomical causes that lend to recurrent miscarriages. In some cases, uterine abnormalities may be treated by surgery.

Chromosomal Abnormalities: Doctors are increasingly able to identify chromosomal abnormalities with the fetus that prevent it from developing beyond a certain stage resulting in the miscarriage or abortion of the fetus. These chromosomal abnormalities might be derived from the mother or the father and even though fertilization occurs, this abnormality prevents the fetus from growing beyond a certain stage.

Hormonal Causes: Various hormones including progesterone play a key role in the fertilization process and in the development of the embryo. Low levels of progesterone have been noted to cause recurrent miscarriages. Certain disorders such as Polycystic Ovarian Disease create an imbalance in the body's hormones and have been known to have an adverse effect on fertility and pregnancy. Various thyroid-related disorders may also contribute to recurring pregnancy loss.

Immunological Causes: Our immune system is built to protect our bodies from foreign and harmful elements. Sometimes, this system does not function in out best interest. Recurrent miscarriages have been caused by a woman's immune system that treats a growing fetus as a harmful foreign body and destroys vital tissues in the uterus, resulting in a miscarriage. Also, blood clotting issues due to excessive anti-phospholipid antibodies in the bloodstream contribute to recurring miscarriages.

Other reasons that may contribute to recurrent miscarriages include maternal age, lifestyle choices such as heavy smoking and drinking, drug abuse, diabetes, and exposure to X-rays or chemical/industrial toxins.

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Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: November 19, 2019