A kind of reversible coma that is noticed with patients suffering from diabetes, diabetic coma is a medical emergency. Diabetics who are taking insulin can sometimes lapse into a condition of hypoglycemia where they fall unconscious. It may be preceded by rapid heart beat, sweating and convulsions. This condition is treated immediately with intravenous glucose. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs at a more advanced stage, when the patient is severely dehydrated and in a state of shock. After nearly a couple of days of hyperventilation and shock, diabetic coma might result. Nonketotic coma is a condition where extreme hyperglycemia causes dehydration due to inadequate fluid intake. The patient is given intravenous fluids, potassium, sodium and insulin.
BMP blood test
BMP blood test or Basic Metabolic Panel blood test comprises a set of tests that throw light on the functioning of a person's kidneys, blood sugar, calcium, electrolyte and acid/base levels. BMP blood test comprises testing for:
Glucose: Metabolic disorders of carbohydrates, incidences of Pancreatitis, renal impairment in association with diabetes mellitus of adult and juvenile origins.
Calcium: Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, tetanus, bone disorders, chronic renal failure.
Sodium: Central nervous system disorders, dehydration, gastrointestinal fluid loss, skin complications, hyperaldosteronism, polydipsia, burns.
Potassium: Hyperparathyroidism, conditions associated with glomerulus and renal tubules, diabetic ketoacidosis and metabolic alkalosis.
CO2 (carbon dioxide, bicarbonate): Renal metabolic disorders, primary respiratory and metabolic alkalosis.
Chloride: Diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, burns, renal diseases.
BMP blood test aids in diagnosis of kidney failure, diabetic coma, hypertension, changes in heart rhythms and respiratory illness. Basic metabolic panel elucidates the blood biochemistry values in association with the underlying medical conditions. The patient is advised to fast 12 hours before the test. In some conditions a random analysis is also followed. Other tests that are used by physicians to check for renal failure are BUN blood test and test for creatinine. If there is elevated blood calcium level, it can be confirmed with an ionized calcium test. Electrolyte imbalance can occur due to many an illness.
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Bibliography / Reference
Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: September 26, 2023