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Klinfeller Syndrome

The predominant cause of Klinfeller syndrome is the chromosomal mosaic which creates an additional X chromosome that affects the growth and development of the reproductive organs. It occurs mostly in men. One of the characteristic features of Klinfeller is decreased testicular size and poor spermatogenesis (production of spermatozoa). Identification tests such as semen analysis, bone density are done in order to decide the mode of treatment. Cell Karyotyping is also performed to identify chromosomal abnormalities. Reduced testosterone levels may lead to gynecomastia and in some cases even mastectomy is advised as a treatment option. Other treatment options include the testosterone replacement therapy.

Male Surgical Sterilization

Sterilization is a permanent method of birth control. To avert pregnancy, the male sperm and the female egg should be prevented from meeting. This can be done in men through vasectomy, male surgical sterilization procedure. The surgery involves removing a portion of vas deferens or vasa, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles into the urethra. The vasa are tied, cut, clipped or sealed to prevent the release of sperm. Vasectomy ensures that no sperm passes through and gets released to fertilize a woman's egg during sexual intercourse.


An outpatient surgery, vasectomy is the safest and easiest form of male surgical sterilization. Local anesthesia is administered to numb the scrotum region. A very small hole is made on one side of the scrotum to pull out part of the vas deferens. A small section of the vas deferens will be removed. The procedure will be repeated on the other side of the scrotum. The hole is very small and requires no stitches. In about two weeks the area will appear normal as before. Within a day or two it would be possible for men to resume normal activities. To resume sex, it would be best to wait for two semen tests post surgery as it takes time to clear remaining sperm in the tubes.


Post surgery, it is normal to experience some mild discomfort, swelling and bruising of the scrotum for a few days. Painkillers prescribed by the health care provider will provide relief from associated discomfort. Spermatic granuloma’s, congestive epididymitis and in very rare cases long lasting pain are some of the long term after effects experienced by men post vasectomy.



Testicular Torsion

Testicular Torsion is a medical emergency where the the spermatic cord becomes twisted and consequently the blood flow to the testicles is blocked. This condition is usually noticed in young boys or adolescent boys. Testicular torsion may occur due to spasm in the muscles after strenuous exercise or inadequate connective tissue within the scrotum.


Testicular torsion results in excruciating pain. There is swelling and pain in the scrotum. A person suffering from testicular torsion may vomit or faint on account of the pain. There may be a lump in the testicles and blood might be noticed in the semen. Diagnosis and immediate treatment is vital if the testicles and their reproductive functions are to be saved. Surgery involves sewing the testicles to the inner side of the scrotum to prevent recurrence of testicular torsion. If the blood supply to the testicles is cut off for a long period of time, they may need to be surgically removed.

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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: November 11, 2019