Mastectomy is a surgical procedure to treat breast cancer. The appropriate mastectomy procedure is decided after considering the woman's age and general health along with the tumor size, stage and grade. In early stages of breast cancer, partial mastectomy is performed and followed with radiation therapy on remaining breast tissues. Lumpectomy involves removal of only the tumor along with a small portion of surrounding tissue. This tissue along with nearby lymph nodes are examined for guiding future treatment course. While unilateral mastectomy involves surgical removal of one breast, bilateral mastectomy means removal of both breasts. When this is done, the breast tissue is also removed so as to reduce the chances of breast cancer from recurring.
Prophylactic mastectomy means removing healthy breasts of a woman so as to reduce the chances of developing breast cancer. This is done in high-risk women after consultation with a specialist in cancer genetics. Women who have already had breast cancer or have a family history of breast cancer may consider this procedure to reduce their risks. This procedure is also referred to as preventive mastectomy. With existing data it is noticed that prophylactic mastectomy reduces the risk of breast cancer by 90% in moderate and high-risk women.
The predominant cause of Klinfeller syndrome is the chromosomal mosaic which creates an additional X chromosome that affects the growth and development of the reproductive organs. It occurs mostly in men. One of the characteristic features of Klinfeller is decreased testicular size and poor spermatogenesis (production of spermatozoa). Identification tests such as semen analysis, bone density are done in order to decide the mode of treatment. Cell Karyotyping is also performed to identify chromosomal abnormalities. Reduced testosterone levels may lead to gynecomastia and in some cases even mastectomy is advised as a treatment option. Other treatment options include the testosterone replacement therapy.
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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: April 3, 2020