The epididymis is a tube in the male reproductive system connecting the vas with the testicles. When the epididymis gets inflamed, it results in epididymitis. This is the result of a bacterial infections such as gonorrhea and chlamydia. In other cases, it can be due to E coli and similar infections. Examination of a patient suffering from epididymitis will usually reveal tender lymph nodes in the groin and tenderness in the area of the testicles. Doppler ultrasound, tests for chlamydia and gonorrhea and blood count might reveal epididymitis.
Cystoscopy is done to examine and diagnose disorders of the urinary bladder and urinary tract. In this procedure, the internal structure of the urinary bladder and the urinary tract can be examined by using the cystoscope. Cystoscopes are administered as both diagnostic and treatment tools. Cystoscopy is predominantly done for patients experiencing recurrent urinary tract or bladder infection, urinary incontinence, hematuria and pain because of obstruction in the urinary tract. The procedure is performed by a urologist by inserting a tube called cystoscope through the urethra to identify disorder.
The duration of the procedure depends upon the condition of the patient. The procedure usually lasts about 45 minutes and it is performed under local, spinal or general anesthesia. Pathological specimens of the urinary bladder can also be obtained by using cystoscopes. Patients are advised to abstain from taking food or water six hours prior to the procedure. In case of rigid cystoscopy, the inserted cystoscope is used to remove any kind of lesions present in the urinary tract or the bladder. In the flexible cystoscopy procedure, the internal lining of the urinary bladder and the urinary tract are examined for abnormalities.
With cystoscopy, small bladder stones or foreign objects can be removed; thereby eliminating surgical intervention. Cystoscopy is useful in examining enlarged prostate, kidney stones and urethral blockage. This procedure is used to place urethral catheters or stents.
Complications of Cystoscopy
The complications associated with the cystoscopy procedure are mostly due to a perforation in the urinary tract. These perforations are caused during the procedure and might lead to urinary tract infection and bleeding. In men epididymitis occurs if testicles are involved during the procedure. The other complications include difficulty in passing urine and abdominal pain. In order to avoid the onset of urinary tract infection after the procedure patients are advised to take fluids preferably water every hour.
Male Surgical Sterilization
Sterilization is a permanent method of birth control. To avert pregnancy, the male sperm and the female egg should be prevented from meeting. This can be done in men through vasectomy, male surgical sterilization procedure. The surgery involves removing a portion of vas deferens or vasa, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles into the urethra. The vasa are tied, cut, clipped or sealed to prevent the release of sperm. Vasectomy ensures that no sperm passes through and gets released to fertilize a woman's egg during sexual intercourse.
An outpatient surgery, vasectomy is the safest and easiest form of male surgical sterilization. Local anesthesia is administered to numb the scrotum region. A very small hole is made on one side of the scrotum to pull out part of the vas deferens. A small section of the vas deferens will be removed. The procedure will be repeated on the other side of the scrotum. The hole is very small and requires no stitches. In about two weeks the area will appear normal as before. Within a day or two it would be possible for men to resume normal activities. To resume sex, it would be best to wait for two semen tests post surgery as it takes time to clear remaining sperm in the tubes.
Post surgery, it is normal to experience some mild discomfort, swelling and bruising of the scrotum for a few days. Painkillers prescribed by the health care provider will provide relief from associated discomfort. Spermatic granuloma’s, congestive epididymitis and in very rare cases long lasting pain are some of the long term after effects experienced by men post vasectomy.
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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: April 22, 2021