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Peripheral Vascular Disease

Peripheral Vascular Disease(PVD) or Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a condition where the arteries supplying blood to the limbs and internal organs get blocked as a consequence of atherosclerosis. Fatty deposits get built up in the arteries and reduce the flow of blood to the organs being supplied by the peripheral arteries. Atherosclerosis is by far the leading cause for Peripheral Vascular Disease. Diabetes is a condition that puts a person at high risk for PVD. Smoking and obesity increases the risk for Peripheral Vascular Disease. Persons who are obese and suffer from hypertension are at higher risk for Peripheral Vascular Disease. A sedentary lifestyle without any exercise should be avoided.


Intermittent Claudication is noticed in patients suffering from Peripheral Vascular Disease. Symptoms associated with Peripheral Vascular Disease include numbness or tingling in the limbs, sores that do not heal and pain in the buttocks. A patient suffering from Peripheral Vascular Disease notices changes in skin color and temperature. There may be a dull and cramping pain in the calf, thigh and hip muscles. Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) involves a ratio of the blood pressure in your ankle to the pressure in your arm. Angiogram is a dye test that reveals any possible blockage in the arteries. Ultrasound Doppler Test uses imaging to check for plaque build-up in the arteries. Duplex ultrasound helps in accurate detection of the size of the artery stenosis and the extent of blockage.


Medication is prescribed to eliminate the narrowing of the arteries thereby improving the heart efficiency. Anti-platelet or anti-clotting agents such as cilostazol and pentoxifylline or aspirin and Clopidogrel help in improving blood supply to the extremities. Heparin and Warfarin are anticoagulant drugs that can prevent blood clotting. Blood viscosity is controlled to improve blood flow. Drugs to control hypertension and cholesterol may also be prescribed. Bypass surgery allows a new blood route that circumvents the blocked areas of the peripheral arteries. Endarterectomy is a surgical procedure whereby a surgeon cleans out plaque buildup inside the artery of the affected leg or arm. Cryoplasty, a newer form of Angioplasty uses liquid nitrous oxide to open a narrowed artery and destroy the plaque within. Regular supervised exercise can reduce symptoms of intermittent Claudication.

L carnitine

L carnitine is an amino acid naturally synthesized by the body from amino acids - Lysine and methionine. This amino acid is found mostly in red meats and in smaller quantities in diary products. As L carnitine is similar to another amino acid Carnitine which plays a major role in energy metabolism. The body produces carnitine in the liver and kidneys and stores it in the skeletal muscles, heart, brain and sperm. Deficiency in these amino acids can manifest as general apathy, fatigue, muscle weakness, decreased tolerance to metabolic stress, and cardiomyopathy.


Symptoms of fatigue and general prognosis improved significantly in those patients who received oral L-carnitine supplementation. L carnitine's action of facilitating the transport of fatty acids is useful in preventing a buildup of amyloid plaque that damages brain tissues. Supplements of L carnitine has helped in some studies, to improve sperm mobility in men with poorly active sperm, a condition known as asthenozoospermia. Some laboratory studies have indicated the beneficial effects of L-carnitine supplements in counteracting the toxic effects of AZT, a drug for the treatment of HIV - human immuno deficiency virus and acquired immuno deficiency syndrome. Cartinine and L-Cartinine are thought to improve some of the following conditions:


  • Heart Disease - As Cartinine helps to improve the overall energy levels, the patients have a better sustained physical activities after suitable medications combined with supplements.
  • High Cholesterol - Patients with elevated levels of cholesterol and triglycerides reported a significant lowering.
  • Intermittent Claudication - Patients with Deficiency in blood circulation in the peripheral regions ( peripheral vascular disease PVD ) reported better muscle functions after taking supplements.
  • Fatty Liver - Alcohol induced fatty buildup in the liver has been reversed and even prevented in some studies.
  • Down's Syndrome - In patients afflicted with this disease, significant improvement in visual memory and attention span was noted after supplements.
  • Male Infertility - supplementation may increase sperm count and Sperm mobility.

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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: November 22, 2019