Uterine Balloon Therapy
Uterine Balloon Therapy is performed under local or general anesthesia. A local anesthesia to numb the cervix and the uterus is likely to be used. A day's rest after the procedure would suffice and then the patient can get back to routine lifestyle. Cramping during the procedure and a watery discharge for about 2 weeks after the procedure is normal.
This procedure is recommended for women with menorrhagia who do not have plans to conceive subsequently, as the procedure destroys the uterine line and therefore affects fertility. As there is a minimal percentage of pregnancy, post procedure women are advised to use contraceptive measures. Women with uterine conditions like fibroids are advised not to opt for uterine balloon therapy. Also, the pap smear and biopsy must be normal to go ahead for a uterine balloon therapy.
Subsequently, the fluid is withdrawn, the balloon automatically deflates and the device is removed from the uterus through the cervix and vagina. The results are apparent from the very first period after the procedure. The menstrual bleeding will be moderate or light. Some women may experience spotting and some women may not have bleeding at all. There are some instances when the first few periods after the procedure has been heavy but shows improvement later.
Bone Marrow Aspiration
Bone marrow refers to the spongy tissue that is found inside the larger bones such as spine, breast bone, hips, ribs, legs and skull. Marrow has two parts – both solid and liquid. If the solid portion of the bone is sampled, it is called biopsy. Aspiration procedure is used to collect the liquid part of the marrow.
Both the procedures show whether the bone marrow is healthy and making normal amounts of blood cells. This procedure is normally used by doctors to diagnose and monitor blood and marrow diseases, including cancer. In bone marrow aspiration, the doctor uses a needle to draw a sample of the fluid portion. For a biopsy, a larger needle is used to take the sample of the solid part.
Most often bone marrow aspiration and bone biopsy is done at once. Together, they make the bone marrow examination. Although they are different procedures, they offer complementary information about bone marrow cells.
Why is it done?
Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy offer detailed information about the condition of the bone marrow and blood cells. In case the blood tests indicate that cell counts are abnormal, and information is not sufficient about a suspected problem, this is done. The doctor may perform bone marrow exam to diagnose a disease condition involving the bone marrow or blood cells:
Pre bone marrow aspiration procedure
It is imperative to inform the doctor about any medications and supplements the patient is consuming. This can increase the risk of bleeding after a bone marrow aspiration. In case of anxiety or worry, better talk to the health care provider so that a sedative medication could be given before the aspiration in addition to a numbing agent through local anesthesia at the site where the needle is inserted.
Bone marrow aspiration is done in a hospital, a clinic or in a doctor's room. A specialist in blood disorders – a hematologist – or an oncologist, who is a specialist in cancer does the procedure with a nurse and a trained technologist. It usually takes about half an hour for the exam and if any intravenous sedation is given, extra time is taken for pre and post procedure care.
The patient's blood pressure and heart rate are checked. Some form of anesthesia is administered before the bone marrow aspiration as it can be painful. For many, local anesthesia is sufficient. You will be fully awake during the aspiration, but the site is numbed to reduce pain. If you are quite anxious, intravenous IV sedation is given before the marrow procedure.
Bone marrow aspiration procedure
The area for inserting the biopsy needle is marked and cleaned. The bone marrow fluid (aspirate) is usually collected from the top ridge of the back of the hipbone, and if it is done from the breast bone or the front of the hip near the groin. In young children and kids, the sample is taken from the lower leg bone, just below the knee. The patient will be made to lie down on the abdomen or side.
The bone marrow aspiration is usually done before the biopsy. A small incision is made to insert the needle easier. A hollow needle is inserted through the bone and into the bone marrow. Several samples are taken and aspiration takes only a few minutes. While the health care team ensures that sufficient quantity of sample is drawn, sometimes a 'dry tap' may occur, that is fluid cannot be withdrawn. The needle is moved for another attempt.
Post aspiration procedure
After the bone marrow exam, pressure is applied to the where the needle was inserted to stop the bleeding. A smaller bandage is placed on the site. If local anesthesia had been administered the patient is asked to lie back for 10-15 minutes and apply pressure on the biopsy site. In case, IV sedation had been given, you are taken into a recovery area as sedatives may cause impaired judgment, memory lapses or slowed response.
Tenderness may be felt for a week or more after the bone marrow exam, and the doctor administers pain reliever. You need to keep the bandage dry for 24 hours and not shower or bathe, or swim or use the hot tub. It is okay to get the aspiration site wet after 24 hours. In case bleeding soaks through the bandage, or does not stop even with direct pressure, consult the doctor. The doctor also needs to be contacted if there is persistent fever, worsening pain, swelling at the procedure site and increasing redness or drainage at the procedure site. Also it is advised to avoid rigorous activity for a couple of days to minimize bleeding and discomfort.
Results from bone marrow aspiration
The sample is sent to a laboratory for analysis. The results are available in a few days. The pathologist or hematologist evaluates the samples to check the health of the marrow and if it has enough healthy blood cells and also for abnormal cells. The doctor confirms or rules out a diagnosis and how advanced the disease is or if the treatment is working. Sometimes, follow-up tests are done.
Risks of bone marrow examination
This is a safe procedure and complications are rare. But some complications include:
Excessive bleeding which can happen in people with low platelet count.
Infection in those with weakened immune systems.
Discomfort that could be long lasting in the biopsy site.
Heart and lung problems can be caused due to penetration of the breastbone.
Sedation can cause allergic reaction, nausea and irregular heartbeats in some.
Uses of bone marrow exams
These are used for many conditions including:
While problems with bone marrow can create lasting and serious health problems, bone marrow exams, such as aspiration and biopsy are important to help determine the status and extent of problems in the cells to evaluate and determine further treatment and management.
Liposuction surgery uses high vacuum attached to special probes known as cannula into the fleshy parts of the body. The fat cells are then sucked out thereby creating a contour to the body part. Liposuction surgery is also referred to as lipoplasty or lip sculpture. This procedure is often resorted to by those suffering from morbid obesity. Some persons are at higher risk of complications due to liposuction surgery. Those with a history of lupus, clotting disorders, diabetes, heart or lung disease or hypertension or endocrine disorders must take suitable medical guidance before resorting to liposuction surgery.
Tumescent liposuction was a major advancement in the liposuction surgical process. This breakthrough process involves filling the fatty layer of skin with a diluted solution of local anesthesia (lidocaine) and other medication prior to the surgical process. The liquid causes the compartments of fat to become swollen or 'tumescent'. This process allows the plastic surgeon to safely and effectively remove the excess layers of fat with little discomfort. Large volumes of a local anesthetic along with epinephrine drug are used to shrink capillaries and thereby minimize blood loss. The skin is helped in the contraction and healing process by an elastic compression garment. Tumescent liposuction can be power-assisted by a mechanical cannula so that fatty tissues are removed with increased precision. This type of precision liposuction is generally used on the face, neck, arms and calves.
Benefits of tumescent liposuction are reduced bleeding, fewer skin irregularities and consequently faster recovery. This surgical liposuction procedure can be done sans costly hospital stays and therefore exorbitant charges can be avoided. Sometimes side effects such as lumpiness and dimpling of the skin are seen. Another rare complication is pulmonary edema, which results in fluid accumulation in the lungs.
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Bibliography / Reference
Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: December 4, 2021