Abnormal or difficult childbirth or labor is termed as dystocia. Cervical dystocia is a condition where the cervix fails to dilate during labor. Shoulder dystocia is the condition where the shoulder gets stuck in pelvis while delivering the child. Dystocia is noticed just before or during the delivery. Depending on how the baby is presenting itself for delivery cephalic (head comes out first) or breech the doctor decides the type of delivery.
Causes of dystocia
Dystocia can occur due to one or more factors, both maternal and fetal:
Physical examination of the mother is done and labor progress is charted on a labor curve. Uterine contraction patterns are reviewed using an intrauterine pressure catheter. Oxytocin is used to improve contractions when they are inadequate. Forceps are used often when there is abnormal fetal positioning.
A baby who is born without any signs of life at or after 24 weeks of pregnancy is defined as still birth. It could have been during late pregnancy, called intrauterine death or could have died during labor or birth, called intrapartum death. Though stillbirth is uncommon, it cannot be said as rare.
Genetic factors or
How the placenta works or
Age and lifestyle of the parent and
Out of these, problem with the placenta or placental insufficiency is probably the most common cause of a baby dying in the womb. Though the exact reason for placenta not functioning properly is not understood, the blood vessels that connect a mother to her baby could become constricted. This may result in a drop in nutrients and oxygen to the baby, causing growth problems and hence death.
Reduced blood flow to the baby via the placenta could be due to pregnancy illness called Preeclampsia.
About 10 % of the babies are still born due to genetic or chromosomal defects. This happens when the placenta separates from the womb causing placental abruption.
Sometimes health condition of the mother such as diabetes, and rare infections such as flu, group B streptococcus, listeriosis or toxoplasmosis can cause the loss of baby in the womb.
The risk of stillbirth is more in older women. This risk appears to be highest at around 41 weeks. That is why in some hospitals, an older mother-to-be is sometimes recommended to have labor induced few weeks before due date. It is very rare that a baby may be stillborn at the very end of pregnancy. This could be due to problems with the placenta wearing out. If you are several weeks past the due date, the placenta may not work as well as it did earlier. Hence, induced labor is recommended by about 41 weeks. Lifestyle factors such as obesity, heavy drinking and smoking in pregnancy increase the risk of a baby being stillborn. Smoking again, can restrict a baby's growth as it reduces the supply of oxygen to the baby via the placenta.
Stillborn during labor or birth
It is quite rare for a baby to die unexpectedly during labor or birth. Most of the times, stillborn babies are lost when they are still in the womb. If the baby is large, in rare instances, his/her shoulders may get stuck as he/she leaves the birth canal, severely reducing the flow of oxygen to the baby. While most babies recover well, sometimes the shoulder dystocia can result in a baby being stillborn. Another cause is problems in the umbilical cord which could result in loss of oxygen to the baby. Either the cord can slip through the cervix or becomes wrapped around a baby's neck.
Fetal behavior and changes in fetal movements or sleep-wake cycles can indicate if there is any fetal distress. Decreased or cessation of fetal activity is an indication of fetal distress or even death. Medical examination including a non-stress test is recommended. Obstetricians recommend the use of a kick chart to assist in detecting any changes. Fetoscopy/doptone, ultrasound or electronic fetal monitoring aid in confirming fetal distress or death. In case the fetus is alive but inactive, extra attention is given to the placenta, and umbilical cord during ultrasound examination to ensure that there is no dearth of oxygen supply and nutrients to the baby.
What happens if the baby dies in the womb ?
The sad reality is that even after the baby dies, the mother has to go through with the birth, as it is better for her health and physical recovery. It is rare for a stillborn baby to be born by cesarean section. In most cases, the labor will have to be started artificially induced. While some parents would want to have the induction as soon as possible, some others would prefer to wait a day to two to see what happens if the labor starts by itself. In case the mother is infected, they will advise the labor induced straightway.
Whether induced or natural labor, the midwife or doctor will administer effective morphine-based pain relief. In case of twins or more, and the death of one baby occurs, the doctor normally advises not to have an induction of labor. Other issues such as whether or not the babies share a placenta, and at what stage the loss occurred should be viewed. The doctor would give the best shot for the live baby or babies to develop and mature a bit longer in the womb. The babies can then be born at the same time, when it is best for the mother's health.
A post mortem examination is done to:
1. Identify a cause or causes for death
2. Provide information about the baby's development
3. Information about health problems to combat future pregnancy.
4. Officially confirm the baby's gender.
Not all parents agree to get a post mortem done and it is only carried out with prior written consent of the parents. Post mortem could also be refused for personal, religious or cultural reasons or for any other personal reasons which the parents may not want to disclose.
Implications for next pregnancy
The decision to try for another baby can be difficult for some mothers, whereas, there is an overwhelming urge to get pregnant again as soon as possible in some others. Depending upon the cause of the stillbirth, the doctor should be able to work together to reduce the risk of it happening again.
Gestational diabetes insipidus occurs during pregnancy. This is a type of diabetes and about 2-10 percent of expectant mothers develop this condition. When pregnant, hormonal changes make your cells less responsive to insulin. But during pregnancy, the pancreas cannot keep up with the increased insulin demand, and hence blood glucose levels rise resulting in gestational diabetes.
Significantly, most women with gestational diabetes do not remain diabetic after the baby is born. Once you've had gestational diabetes, though, you are at higher risk during a future pregnancy and for developing diabetes later in life.
Symptoms of gestational diabetes
There are no symptoms and that is perhaps why all pregnant women have to undergo a glucose screening test between 24 and 28 weeks. If you are at a high risk for diabetes and are showing signs of it, then the doctor would recommend this screening test at the first prenatal visit and then repeat at 24 weeks, the initial test being negative. Follow up tests are done to find out if the result on glucose screening is positive.
High risk factors for gestational diabetes
The American Diabetes Association prescribes the following condition for early screening, in case of high risk namely:
Obesity and BMI over 30
If you have had gestational diabetes in previous pregnancy
If the urine has sugar and
If you have a strong family history of diabetes.
Other risk factors
If earlier delivery was a big baby
If you have had a stillbirth
If you have high blood pressure and
If you are over 35.
An association between excessive weight gain during pregnancy, particularly in the first trimester and risk of gestational diabetes has been established.
Gestational diabetes: Pregnancy and baby
Poorly controlled diabetes may have short and long term consequences for you and your baby. If blood sugar levels are too high, the baby's blood may have too much glucose. The excess blood sugar and insulin can cause the baby to put on extra weight particularly in the upper body. This can lead to a condition called macrosomia. This baby may be too large to enter the birth canal or the baby's head may enter but shoulder may get stuck. This is a tricky condition called dystocia and the doctor has to use special procedures to deliver the baby.
Sometimes delivery of such babies may result in fractured bone or nerve damage which could become permanent in 99% of babies. It is better that babies of mothers with gestational diabetes, check their blood sugar regularly and breast feed the baby immediately after birth to prevent or correct hypoglycemia.
Such babies with hypoglycemia at birth are given IV glucose solution. Testing the baby's sugar and providing an IV if necessary can prevent serious problems such as coma, brain damage and seizures. The baby also exhibits high risk for breathing problems and newborn jaundice. In addition, the baby is also at risk for polycythemia or increase in the number of red cells in the blood and hypocalcaemia or low calcium in the blood. Women with gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of developing Preeclampsia, particularly those who are obese before pregnancy and blood sugar levels are uncontrolled.
Bibliography / Reference
Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: March 18, 2019