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Beta blockers

Also called as Beta adrenergic blocking agents because of their blocking actions of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine on the Beta adrenergic receptors. This action results in lowering of the heart rate and the blood pressure. Additionally this drug is useful for treating migraine and a host of other cardiovascular conditions.

  • Propranolol
    : brand name Inderal
  • Metoprolol
  • : brand name Lopressor
  • Atenolol
    : brand name Tenormin

Anti hypertensive drugs

Anti hypertension drugs can be classified into 8 broad categories depending upon their mode of action. In this collection of health articles, we strive hard to impart information with no commercial bias and hence you may not find any commercial name of the drugs or brand names as far as possible. Instead we may present the generic names of the drugs.

To control the high blood pressure, your doctor may use one of the following group of drugs:


Syncope or fainting episode requires immediate medical attention as it is associated with neurological responses in the body. Syncope episdoes are related to the malfunction or altered function of important physiological activities in the body. Syncope is categorized into cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular types depending on the underlying case of ischemia. Presyncope is a precursor to the onset of syncope as the patient begins to experience lightheadedness or dizziness.

Clinical manifestations of presyncope

Presyncope or dizziness is often related to vertigo during clinical evaluation of the patient. Vomiting and nausea are two classical signs indicating the onset of a presyncope episode. In most cases people travelling to higher altitudes and regions of low oxygen concentration experience this. In some cases these symptoms occur because of extreme physical activity, improper nutrition, underlying cardiac condition and also diabetes. Syncope or presyncope is associated with apnea as there is decreased oxygen supply to the brain. Patients experience abdominal discomfort, blurred vision and also headaches during the presyncope episode. Presyncope episodes can be very dangerous during driving as it may lead to accidents. Disorientation is also an important symptom in identifying the onset of presyncope which subsequently leads to syncope.

Diagnosis of presyncope

The diagnosis of presyncope-related episodes is dependent on the identification of underlying cardiac and neurological conditions. Thorough analysis of the heart functionality, respiratory parameters and neurological functions are conducted. In many cases presyncope and episodes of syncope are closely associated with ischemic heart disease. Carotid artery palpation and examination of left ventricular flow are done. Presyncope episode is a warning sign of an impending physiological transition or complication. Cerebral blood flow obstruction caused due to pulmonary embolism is also a major factor for the onset of syncope.

Treatment of presyncope

Presyncope diagnosis is associated with existing medical conditions. Studies indicate that presyncope is also caused due to psychological disorders such as anxiety and panic. The patient is initially examined for underlying cardiac or neurological disorders before treating presyncope. The most common methods of treatment are through diet counseling such as fluid and salt intake. Patients prone to presyncope episodes are advised to avoid sauna, steam showers and also highly populated areas. Medications such as beta blockers, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, theophylline, sertraline and fluoxetine are suggested for presyncope and cardio-neurogenic syncope conditions.

Tags: #Beta blockers #Anti hypertensive drugs #Presyncope
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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: July 22, 2024