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Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 or non-insulin dependent diabetes is more commonly noticed. This is caused due to insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas or when the body is unable to regulate the amount of glucose in the blood. Complications of type 2 diabetes include coronary heart disease, renal failure, diabetic neuropathy and failing eyesight. Diabetes Type 2 is also referred to as late-onset diabetes.


Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 develops when the patient's body becomes insulin-resistant. Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes include blurred vision, weight loss and excessive thirst and fatigue. Yeast infection and fungal infections are common. Weight reduction can go a long way in maintaining blood sugar levels. Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Sedentary lifestyle and obesity also increase a person's chances of diabetes type 2. Often this type of diabetes is hereditary. Persons with excessive abdominal fat are more prone to developing diabetes type 2. Hypertension and high blood cholesterol increases a person's risk of diabetes mellitus type 2.


Blood tests for glucose tolerance help in detecting diabetes mellitus type 2. In some cases, patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2 are able to control their condition with diet and exercise. Follow a diet that is low in saturated fat, salt and sugar. Instead opt for high fiber vegetables and fruits. Antidiabetic medications (sulphonylureas) are prescribed for diabetic patients to increase the production of insulin and improve its efficiency. These include glibenclamide and glipizide. Insulin injections are resorted to when all these measures fail to reduce blood sugar levels.

Prediabetes

Nearly 79 million people in the US over age 20 have prediabetes. Prediabetes is a condition when the glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to indicate diabetes. It is called borderline diabetes. While most people with Pre diabetes do not exhibit symptoms, they are considered to be at high risk of developing heart disease.

In prediabetes, the subtle balance between glucose and insulin is thrown off, as the pancreas are not able to produce enough insulin after a meal to clear the incoming glucose from the blood. Or cells may be insulin resistant so that they do not allow the insulin to escort glucose from the blood stream into them. If you suffer prediabetes,you are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In addition, you may also encounter associated medical problems of diabetes, including heart disease and stroke.


Diagnosis of prediabetes

To determine prediabetes, the doctor performs three different blood tests: Fasting plasma glucose
Oral glucose tolerance test and
Hemoglobin AIC test (Average blood sugar)


Lifestyle changes for prediabetes

Prediabetes should not be ignored as this heralds the process of damage to your heart and other organs such as kidneys, eyes, and nervous system. Losing excess weight can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. Even losing 5 to 10% of excess weight can help. Aerobic exercise daily can keep your heart rate up. Eating a balanced diet with low fat protein, vegetables, and whole grains can prevent prediabetes from becoming diabetes.


DHEA

DHEA Dehydroepiandrosterone is a steroid hormone that is naturally produced by adrenal or the stress glands in the body. The dominant hormone in the body gets converted into other hormones such as estrogen, testosterone, progesterone and corticosterone.


DHEA levels are high in the 20s and early 30s, the average being about 25mg per day. The level declines with age. Besides the aging factor, decline in DHEA levels can be attributed to diseases such as end stage kidney disease, AIDS, anorexia, adrenal insufficiency and type 2 diabetes.

Intake of medications such as insulin, opiates, corticosteroids and danazol also contribute to DHEA depletion. DHEA - dehydroepiandrosterone (or Androstenolone as it is sometimes called) levels can be maintained through DHEA supplements under medical supervision. The dosage is to be determined by the healthcare provider. The benefits of DHEA supplementation includes improved immunological function, bone mineral density and sexual libido in women, reduced abdominal fat, diabetes prevention and cancer.


With specific reference to DHEA levels and heart health, data indicates that in men and women who die of heart disease, the DHEA levels are significantly less than others of the same age. The aim of DHEA level test is to measure the amount of hormone in the blood stream. When the levels are low, the endocrine function of the body is severely affected. Being the 'feel-good' hormone, a good level of DHEA contributes to a balanced mood.


Extensive research on DHEA levels suggests that healthy DHEA levels can prevent Alzheimer's disease, cancer, osteoporosis, depression, heart disease and obesity. Symptoms of low DHEA levels are extreme fatigue, decrease in muscle mass, decrease in bone density, depression, aching joints, loss of libido and lowered immunity. Doctors test DHEA levels as a diagnostic tool for varied reasons. The test results indicate specific disorders in men, women and children.


  • To check if the adrenal glands are working properly.

  • In women, the test is recommended if there is excessive hair growth or the appearance of male body characteristics.

  • In children who attain puberty at an abnormally early age, the DHEA level test is done to assess any gland disorder.

  • Prevalence of diseases and the process of aging can cause bone loss. By checking the DHEA levels, doctors can recommend measures to improve bone density.

  • Depression, anxiety and mood disorders are linked to hormonal imbalance. DHEA level test is a precursor to treating major depression.

  • Assessment of DHEA levels helps in taking measures to boost immune system.

  • Decreased libido is linked to lower DHEA levels.

  • Low levels of DHEA help predict HIV progression.

  • If afflicted with chronic fatigue syndrome, testing DHEA levels helps in taking necessary steps to improve the condition.

  • To assess if bone density is higher especially in women who have undergone menopause, DHEA level test is recommended.

  • Extensive research on DHEA indicates it as a predictive factor in diagnosing aging-related diseases.

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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: July 19, 2019