Inflammation of the peritoneum is called as Peritonitis. Inflammation may be the result of an infection caused due to the accumulation of blood, pus or body fluids in the abdominal cavity. It can rapidly spread across the body and cause death. Typical causes of peritonitis are burst appendix, burst stomach ulcer, diverticulitis and Crohn's disease. Cirrhosis and kidney dialysis can also lead to peritonitis.
Spontaneous peritonitis occurs due to infection in the fluid that has accumulated in the peritoneal cavity. This happens in cases of advanced kidney or liver disease.
Secondary peritonitis involves leakage of bile or pancreatic enzymes into the abdominal cavity.
Symptoms of peritonitis include nausea, lack of appetite, high fever and severe abdominal pain. The person might find it difficult to pass urine. Abdominal distension is observed. There is shortness of breath and racing. CT scan and blood tests are done to check the condition.
Severe obstructions may necessitate immediate surgery to prevent perforation. In other cases, Antibiotics are administered for about 7 days. They might be injected directly into the peritoneal area. In case there is extensive damage to any part of the peritoneum, that part of the perforated stomach of intestine might be surgically removed. Alternatively, any abscess is drained to aid healing.
Worms are parasites that live and thrive on the human and other bodies. Intestinal Parasites feed off from hosts and can be broadly classified into 2 major groups:
Protozoans: Protozoa are single cell organisms causing many diseases like Amebiasis, Giardiasis, Trichomoniasis,Sleeping Sickness,Dysentery and Malaria.
Helminths or Parasitic Worms: This kind of parasite infects the host through contaminated food, infected uncooked food, unhygienic handling of food or by skin contact with larvae.
Threadworms or pinworms: Thin tiny pinworm thrives in the intestine. They thrive due to poor hygiene. Contact with contaminated objects passes the infection through the eggs that enter through the mouth and thrive in the gut. Contact with cat or dog feces can lead to thread worm infection. Notice them in the early morning stools.
Round Worms: These roundworms can move to eyes and lungs and cause swelling in different body organs. They cause upper abdominal discomfort, insomnia, rashes and eye pain. If left untreated, roundworm infection can lead to appendicitis, loss of appetite and peritonitis.
Tape Worms: These tapeworms are like flat ribbons and can become encrusted in the brain and skin.
Hook Worms: Hookworms burrow into the intestinal walls and feed on the blood. Typical symptoms of hookworm infection are iron deficiency, protein deficiency, stunted growth and delayed puberty.
Pin Worms: Pinworms suppress the immune system and cause problems such as irritation around the anus or vagina, digestive problems and irritability.
Symptoms of worms or parasites infection are:
Anti-parasitic medications are prescribed for threadworms. Increased hygiene is of utmost importance. Washing of hands regularly; especially after using the restroom is vital. Keep fingernails short. Bathe daily and wear clean clothes. Keep the toilet seat disinfected.
Liver biopsy involves removal of a small piece of tissue from the liver to evaluate for damage or disease. This diagnostic test is usually suggested when blood tests reveal high levels of liver enzymes or excessive iron. An inflamed liver may also need to be examined with a liver biopsy. Cases of cirrhosis or hepatitis may require liver biopsy to diagnose the extent of liver damage. A patient scheduled for liver biopsy will need to keep the physician informed of various medications that are taken, such as anticoagulants, ibuprofen and aspirin. It is necessary to fast for about 8 hours prior to the liver biopsy procedure. The patient may be asked to stay in the hospital for a few hours to observe for any signs of bleeding or other complications as as peritonitis or puncture of the gallbladder.Liver biopsy is done in the following ways:
Percutaneous liver biopsy involves use of special needle to make an incision through the skin, taking care not to nick any other internal organs.
Laparoscopic liver biopsy involves use of laparoscope to make a small incision in the abdomen. This aids the physician in taking a biopsy from a specific part of the liver.
Transvenous liver biopsy involves insertion of a catheter into a vein in the neck and guiding it to the liver. The biopsy needle is fitted to the catheter.Tags: #Peritonitis #Worms #Liver biopsy
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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: December 2, 2023