TargetWoman Condensed Health Information



Myotonia Congenita

Myotonia Congenita is a neuromuscular genetic disease that involves progressive muscle stiffness and enlargement. This rare disorder is characterized by bouts of sustained muscle stiffness or Myotonia. The resultant muscle tensing can range from mild to severe. Myotonia Congenita occurs due to mutation of the CLCNI gene. This gene is critical in the functioning of the skeletal muscles. Therefore the mutation leads to bouts of muscle weakness. Abnormal muscle enlargement or hypertrophy is noticed in persons suffering Myotonia, even in children.


  • Myotonia Congenita is an inherited condition.
  • Myotonia Congenita is treatable.
  • Is a non-progressive Myotonia disorder.
  • Does not affect affected person's life span.
  • Can affect body structure or growth patterns.
  • Men are more affected than women.
  • More common in northern Scandinavia, the ratio is 1:10,000 people.
  • Muscle stiffness is more apparent in the leg muscles though it can affect face muscles and tongue.
  • Cold, anxiety and fatigue are triggers for leg muscles stiffness.

Myotonia can affect muscles in any part of the body. In some it can affect the limbs. Some persons experience difficulty in swallowing or inability to relax their muscles quickly after contraction. Other symptoms include shortness of breath at the beginning of exercise.


Thomsen disease: In this form of the disorder, the symptoms manifest early in infancy. The main characteristic symptom of Thomsen disease is muscle stiffness or even muscle weakness after a bout of strenuous exercise. Even stress, fatigue or cold can act as triggers. The symptoms become noticeable in 2-3 years. Limbs and eyelid muscles are often affected. Thomsen disease is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait.

Becker disease: This form of the disorder typically occurs later in life. The symptoms of Becker disease are noticed between 4-12 years. In Becker Myotonia, there is severe muscle stiffness which can often lead to mild muscle atrophy. Some medications such as beta blockers, diuretics and muscle relaxants can trigger Becker disease symptoms. Becker disease is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.


An Electromyography is done to test the electrical activity within the muscles. Muscle biopsy is performed to check for absence of 2B fibers. CK blood test is done to check for elevated creatine kinase levels.


Myotonia Congenita Treatment

In the absence of a cure for Myotonia Congenita, a holistic approach encompassing lifestyle changes, physical therapy, and avoiding triggers is effective. Termed as the warm-up phenomenon, for most people regular exercise has been effective to relax the stiff muscles. Healthcare providers suggest making lifestyle modifications such as avoiding certain situations and physical therapy even before prescribing medications. Rehabilitative therapy to improve muscle function and relaxation techniques to reduce stress and mental discomfort which may worsen the disorder is also recommended.


Only when all these are insufficient, medications such as quinine and anticonvulsant drug such as phenytoin are prescribed. Children diagnosed with the disorder should have regular consultation with pediatric neurologist to understand and manage the disorder with the least disturbance during the growing years. Custom designed exercises, selecting suitable games and sports, avoiding foods that trigger lets children work around the symptoms and have a quality life.


Myopathy

Myopathy or muscular disease that includes muscle inflammation and muscle weakness. Myopathies affecting the skeletal muscle can have many origins - inherited, drug induced or endocrine issues. Mostly a Myopathy is transitory in nature and rarely results in complete loss of function. Muscular Dystrophy is possibly an exception in that it can be severe and sometimes even fatal if it occurs early in life.


Genetic Myopathies

These inherited Myopathies occur due to a genetic defect in the synthesis of a protein. There are many kinds in genetic Myopathies:


  • Central Core Disease : Weakness in the muscles affecting hips and legs resulting in problems in running, jumping and climbing stairs

  • Centronuclear Myopathy or Myotubular Myopathy : Weakness in the muscles affecting face, legs, arms and the trunk resulting in drooping upper eyelids, facial weakness or foot drop

  • Myotonia Congenita : Muscles in the face, arms or legs are affected and result in muscular stiffness (myotonia) after contracting of muscles - usually after a trigger in the form of stress, fatigue, cold or a long period of no motion

  • Nemaline Myopathy : Weakness in the muscles of arms, legs and the trunk resulting in poor or absent reflexes, long or narrow face, abnormal facial features

  • Paramyotonia Congenita : Stiffness of muscles in the face, forearms and hands

  • Periodic Paralysis : Temporary muscle weakness episodes in hypokalemic form (low calcium) as a result of vigorous exercises, intake of food high in carbohydrates, stress, alcohol, insulin, pregnancy or infection. In the hyperkalemic form (high calcium) it can occur as a result of vigorous exercises, stress, pregnancy, skipping food, high potassium levels or steroids

  • Mitochondrial Myopathies : Progressive weakness of muscles in the eye (ocular myopathy) or arms and the legs or multisystem issues


Endocrine related Myopathies : Hormone deficiency can cause Myopathies. Hyperthyroid Myopathy is the result of excess secretion of thyroxine from the thyroid gland affecting muscles in the shoulders, hips or eyes. Hypothyroid Myopathy occurs when too little hormone is secreted and results in stiffness, cramps and weakness of legs and arms muscles.


Inflammatory Myopathies : Some Myopathies result in inflamed, weakened or wasted muscles. Dermatomyositis affects the connective tissue and the severity of the affected muscle loss can result in crippling movement.

Chronic muscle inflammation is called as Myositis. It is usually caused due to allergic reaction, infectious disease or rheumatism. Sometimes Myopathies are hereditary. Symptoms of Myopathy can also include cramps, spasms and stiffness. There is progressive deterioration in muscle strength resulting in pain and fatigue on walking and tripping and falling. This is not due to nerve dysfunction. Some patients might notice facial weakness, foot drop, droopy eyelids and poor reflexes in affected muscles.



Tags: #Myotonia Congenita #Myopathy
Here is how it works

Enter your health or medical queries in our Artificial Intelligence powered Application here. Our Natural Language Navigational engine knows that words form only the outer superficial layer. The real meaning of the words are deduced from the collection of words, their proximity to each other and the context.

Check all your health queries

Diseases, Symptoms, Tests and Treatment arranged in alphabetical order:

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z

Popular Topics
Free Health App
Free Android Health App Free WebApp for iPhones


Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: August 13, 2020