Anti hypertensive drugs
Anti hypertension drugs can be classified into 8 broad categories depending upon their mode of action. In this collection of health articles, we strive hard to impart information with no commercial bias and hence you may not find any commercial name of the drugs or brand names as far as possible. Instead we may present the generic names of the drugs.
To control the high blood pressure, your doctor may use one of the following group of drugs:
Lower Extremity Edema
Edema refers to a condition that is often associated with accumulation of fluids in the tissues. It is predominantly caused because of an inflamed or infected tissue. The nature and type of edema caused can depend on various reasons such as trauma, infections or hereditary diseases. Edema is prominently noticed in few areas of the body especially in the legs. In most cases edema is also associated with an existing cardiac or renal condition. The edema associated with vital organs is because of fluid retention. Edema of the lower extremities is often associated with disorders of the vital organs or sometimes because of any prolonged activity such as standing or even sitting.
Fluid electrolyte balance is an important factor in understanding various edematous conditions, especially pertaining to lower extremities. In many cases, it is because of an inflammatory response to the trauma caused to a tissue or an internal organ. Other factors such as urinary infections and cystitis, which are common renal diseases, cause edema in the legs. It is essential to classify the type of edema in order to arrive at an appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Physicians upon general examination and history of the patient can evaluate the edema in to two - pitting and non-pitting.
Pitting edema of the lower extremities is often associated with indentation to the edematous region for a specific amount of time upon applying pressure. Non-pitting edema does not show indentation. Characteristic pitting edema is generally bilateral in nature. Infections caused by Streptococcus especially rheumatoid arthritis cases present prominent edematous appearances. Sometimes, Gout's disease and cellulitis cause edema of the legs. The physiology associated with all these medical conditions have common diagnostic affirmations related to fluid electrolyte balance. Another important factor associated with edema is the protein intake. Higher protein intake can lead to increased uric acid levels causing edema. Decreased protein intake in conditions such as nephrotic syndrome and starvation can lead to edema.
The production of endothelin protein is prominent in edematous conditions. The relevance to this protein production is an important factor for the onset of hydrostatic condition leading to increase systolic pressure causing arterial vasoconstriction. A cascade of metabolic changes occur because of this condition leading to disturbances in renin Angiotensin mechanism and also increased capillary permeability.
The common treatment options for treating edema are the administration of diuretics and vasodilators. In case of infections of bacterial and fungal origin, antibiotics are given to facilitate prophylaxis. Coumadin and Flavonoids are used as therapeutics in addition to vasodilators. Surgical interventions such as liposuction also benefit the patient to a larger extent.
Tadalafil is a prescription drug to treat ED Erectile Dysfunction. Tadalafil, available in many brand names - such as Cialis, is a second generation selective phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor medication. PDE-5 inhibitors work by blocking an enzyme called phosphodiesterase-5 PDE-5. First generation PDE-5 inhibitors like Sildenafil and Vardenafil (Levitra) have a half-life of 3.7 hours typically while the second generation drug like Tadalafil has a half life of about 17.5 hours or more. What this means is that a single dose can have a longer effect. Some studies have suggested the use of this drug for the treatment of other male and female sexual disorders, such as premature ejaculation and female sexual arousal disorder.
Dosage of Tadalafil: Note that alcohol and a PDE5 inhibitors act as mild vasodilators. When mild vasodilators are taken in combination, blood-pressure lowering effects of each may be increased. This combination can enhance the potential for orthostatic signs and symptoms such as an increase in heart rate, decrease in standing blood pressure, dizziness and headache.
Normal dosage is about 10 mg as a single dose a few minutes before the actual event. Its effects last upto 36 hours in some cases obviating the need for more doses in subsequent days.
Contraindication for Tadalafil: Tadalafil or Cialis is contraindicated for patients who use organic nitrates as the concomitant use of the nitrates along with PDE inhibitors can result in abnormal lowering of blood pressure, or dizziness, syncope, or even heart attack or stroke.
Side Effects of Tadalafil:Some patients have reported headache, indigestion, back pain, muscle aches, nasal congestion, facial flushing and dizziness although these effects do not last longer than 24 hours after the administration of the drug.
Bibliography / Reference
Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: March 21, 2019