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Hysteroscopy

Hysteroscopy is a diagnostic test that makes use of a thin telescope-like hysterescope to view and operate upon the endometrial cavity. Carbon dioxide is filled into the cavity to aid this process. While often hysteroscopy can be done as an outpatient procedure, some women may need local anesthesia. In some cases, hysterescopy is done along with a resectoscope. But this procedure destroys the uterine lining and is not a viable alternative for women who wish to have children. A laparoscope may be used to view the uterine exteriors.


Diagnostic hysteroscopy involves observation of the endometrial cavity for any abnormalities. This procedure is often used in cases where there has been abnormal uterine bleeding or repeated miscarriage. Diagnostic hysteroscopy may also be used to confirm the results of HSG. Hysterescopy may be used to check for causes of heavy or irregular menstrual cycle or fit IUD.

Operative hysteroscopy involves use of hysteroscope to remove polyps, cut adhesions or treat fibroids and septums. This can be used as an alternative to open abdominal surgery. This involves use of operative hysteroscope that allows the physician to insert operating tools. In rare cases, hysterescopy may lead to infection and heavy bleeding or injury to the cervix or uterus.

Oviduct Blockage

Oviduct blockage is the blockage in one or both microscopic fallopian tubes that allow a woman's egg to pass from her ovaries to her uterus. The blockage is an impediment for the egg to migrate, implant and begin pregnancy. The result is infertility. In rare cases, even if pregnancy occurs it can be dangerous, if not treated immediately.


Diagnosing oviduct blockage

Laparoscopic chromotubation: Usually done after sedating with a mild anesthetic, laparoscopy involves making a very small incision in the belly button and near the pubic bone area; a small camera helps view the tubes. Laparoscopy helps detect endometriosis, adhesions, and ovarian cysts and also check the tubes.

Chromotubation involves infusing diluted methylene blue dye solution into the uterine and tubal lumen. If the tubes are not blocked, the dye should come out of the ends of the tubes into the peritoneal (abdomen) cavity. This test is considered the most reliable way to determine oviduct blockages.

Both laparoscopic chromotubation and Hysterosalpingogram can sometimes open a blocked tube; hence these procedures can be both diagnostic and therapeutic. The rate of fertility is likely to improve after the procedure.


Falloscopy: The newest form of endoscopic examination, falloscopy is helpful to look inside the fallopian tubes. Using a catheter-based system, a flexible tube is inserted through the vagina and cervix which threads through one of the fallopian tube. Very similar to hysterosalpingogram, it allows viewing of tubal walls and checks if it is healthy and also detects obstruction, if any.

Sonohysterography: This is a non-invasive procedure wherein fluid is injected through the cervix into the uterus, and ultrasound imaging is used to determine if any abnormality is present. The procedure is extremely helpful in detecting underlying cause of many problems such as abnormal uterine bleeding, infertility and repeated miscarriage. Like the other diagnostic procedures, sonohysterography is done when the woman is not having her menstrual cycle.


Oviduct blockage treatment

The goal of treating oviduct blockages is to unblock fallopian tubes and increase the chances for a successful pregnancy. Surgical procedures are the primary treatment option to open blocked oviducts. If needed, doctors will use more than one procedure to treat oviduct blockage. Take a look at the various surgical and non-surgical options available today to treat this particular condition.

Laparoscopy: To treat oviduct blockages, laparoscopy is widely preferred. It involves inserting the scope into the abdomen and cutting away scar tissue which blocks the tubes and is a result of infection and/or endometriosis, primary causes for oviduct blockages. It helps in unblocking the oviducts and allows the eggs and sperm to meet and facilitates the egg to become fertilized.

Recanalization: A tiny wire is inserted into the tube to remove the blockage.

Salpingectomy: It involves removing a blocked fallopian tube or sealing it in order to maximize the functioning of the second, unblocked tube.

Tubal Reanastomosis: This is also a laparoscopic procedure in which small incisions are made through the abdomen. The blocked portion of the oviducts or fallopian tube is cut away and the healthy sections of the tube are connected. It is followed by a procedure called Salpingostomy to create a new opening in the tube close to the ovary.

Fimbrioplasty: This plastic surgery that facilitates to reshape ends of fallopian tubes closed off by scar tissue or some other blockage.

Tubal Cannulation: Is a non-surgical option which involves clearing blockages with the use of a catheter, or Cannula that is inserted through the uterus into the fallopian tube.



Placental Abruption

The placenta usually separates from the uterus after the birth of the baby. Placental abruption is a condition where the placenta separates from the uterine wall during the pregnancy. Placental abruption is a serious condition and can put the baby at risk. This is a medical emergency. Hypertension can sometimes lead to placental abruption. Women who have blood-clotting disorders may experience placental abruption. Women suffering from diabetes or abusing drugs are also at higher risk for placental abruption. Those women who have had multiple pregnancies are also at higher risk for placental abruption.


A pregnant woman suffering from placental abruption is likely to have abdominal and back pain. There might be rapid uterine contractions. There is tenderness in the abdomen. Uterine bleeding is often noticed. Placental abruption can occur anytime after the 20th week of pregnancy.


An ultrasound can help in locating any possible blood clot behind the placenta. It can also help in checking for any signs of fetal distress. Fetal monitoring is essential since the placenta supplies nutrients to the growing fetus. There may be decreased fetal movements. The extent of placental abruption decides the course of treatment to be followed. Partial placental abruption needs adequate bed rest and close monitoring. In cases of total placental abruption, delivery of the infant is undertaken. This is either with vaginal delivery or cesarian section. But there is a risk of premature birth and fetal death. The newborn baby could suffer brain damage due to low levels of oxygen in the blood.

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Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: July 15, 2019