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Toxic Shock Syndrome

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a condition attributed to Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that are found on the human body. While they are mostly harmless, in rare cases they produce a toxin leading to toxic shock syndrome. TSS has usually been linked to the use of tampons, though they can also be caused by bacterial infections of wounds or surgical incisions. Toxic shock syndrome has also been linked to other staph infections such as pneumonia, septicemia and osteomyelitis. TSS has also been noticed in women using a diaphragm or a contraceptive sponge.

Symptoms of toxic shock syndrome include high fever, headache, diarrhea and aching muscles. Other symptoms of TSS include vomiting, rapid drop in blood pressure and unusual redness under the eyelids. A person suffering from toxic shock syndrome is likely to feel dizzy and confused and have difficulty in breathing. Women may notice unusual vaginal discharge that is smelly.

All wounds and cuts must be treated with clean bandages. Women can reduce the risk of TSS by alternating between tampons and sanitary napkins. Ensure that you wash your hands before you touch them. Change tampons regularly and always remove the tampon at the end of the period. Treatment for TSS includes antibiotic medications and drugs to maintain normal blood pressure. If there is an infected site, the area must be drained clean and any foreign bodies must be removed from the body. It is imperative to consult a doctor at once if the patient becomes pale and has a rapid pulse. Toxic shock syndrome can lead to severe multi-organ dysfunction and can be life-threatening.

Cervical Biopsy

A cervical biopsy is a surgical procedure by which a small amount of tissue sample are taken from the cervix and examined for any disease or problems. Cervix refers to the narrow end of the uterus at the end of the vagina. Cervical biopsy is done to detect risk for developing cervical cancer. It is a diagnostic tool for benign polyps on the cervix or genital warts. Normally it is performed by her gynecologist.

As such, cervical biopsies can be done by three different methods, the punch biopsy where small pieces of tissue are taken from her cervix by an instrument called biopsy forceps, the cone biopsy, where a large cone shaped tissue is taken by scalpel or laser and endocervical biopsy, where cells are removed by a hand held instrument, shaped like a small scoop.

Cervical biopsies are done a week following menstruation. This will enable the doctor get a clean specimen. As some medications can increase the risk of bleeding, it is recommended to stop taking these drugs for some time before the biopsy. Similarly, the patient is advised to avoid using tampons and medicated vaginal creams for at least 24 hours before the procedure. Sexual intercourse should also be refrained from.

The cervical biopsy procedure is not elaborate. A routine pelvic exam is done and the gynecologist administers local anesthetic. A speculum is inserted into the vagina and the canal open during the procedure after the cervix is washed with vinegar and water. This is Schiller test, by which the doctor is able to identify the abnormal tissues. The procedure is not painful; only a pinching sensation is felt. After the biopsy is done, the doctor packs the cervix with absorbent material to reduce the amount of bleeding, but not every biopsy needs such packing.

The recovery process will vary and this depends upon the type of biopsy performed. Except for some mild cramping and spotting, recovery is not difficult. At times, the cramping and bleeding may run for a week. Post cervical biopsy activities are restricted and it is better to avoid heavy lifting, intercourse, using tampons for several weeks especially after a cone biopsy.


Cystitis is an infection of the bladder typically caused by urinary tract infection. It is characterized by painful urination and frequent urination. Other symptoms of cystitis include traces of blood in the urine, lower back pain, fever and general weakness. Usually women suffer cystitis more often than males on account of the short urethra that makes it more prone to bacteria. It is more common in pregnant women and post-menopausal women. Men who are more prone to cystitis are those with enlarged prostate. Urinary catheters, diaphragms and tampons can bring on a bout of cystitis infection. Keeping yourself well hydrated with water and cranberry juice helps prevent cystitis. Avoid vaginal deodorants. You can make the urine less acidic by taking sodium citrate or potassium citrate.

Tags: #Toxic Shock Syndrome #Cervical Biopsy #Cystitis
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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: February 22, 2024