TargetWoman Condensed Health Information



Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Nearly 1 million women in the US alone suffer from pelvic inflammatory disease or PID each year; PID is an infection in the reproductive organs of a woman. It is essential to treat the symptoms of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease immediately when noticed. Failure to do so may lead to complications such as infertility and even can be life threatening. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) such as chlamydia or gonorrhea are often the cause for pelvic inflammatory disease. Women who have multiple sexual partners or partners with symptoms of chlamydia or gonorrhea infections are at a higher risk for PID. Some forms of contraception such as IUDs may put a woman at increased risk of PID. Surgical procedures such as D and C (Dilation and Curettage), insertion of IUD or treatment of an abnormal Pap smear can lead to pelvic inflammatory. Usually the cervix prevents the spread of bacteria into the internal organs. But when the cervix gets infected with an STD (Sexually Transmitted Disease), disease-causing bacteria travel up the internal organs and damage the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and abdomen. Bacteria present in the vagina and cervix can also have a precipitating effect on the Pelvic Inflammation. Usually multiple organisms are responsible for a bout of PID. Spreading of the infection can lead to further inflammation and scarring.


Women suffering from PID experience high fever and chills. Dull pain in the lower abdomen and lower back are typical symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease. A woman suffering from pelvic inflammatory disease may also experience fever and irregular menstrual bleeding. Other symptoms of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease are pain during intercourse and urination. Some women do not experience any symptoms at all. Laboratory tests for chlamydia, gonorrhea and urinary tract infection are conducted on a patient who might be suffering from PID. A pelvic ultrasound helps in looking for any abnormalities in the pelvic area or fallopian tubes. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease can also be diagnosed with falloposcopy - a visual study of the inside of the fallopian tubes.


Treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease is based on pelvic examination and examination of the woman's sexual and menstrual history. Antibiotic therapy of Floxin is used as oral medication for PID. This is the first FDA approved oral therapy for PID. Other drugs used in combination for treatment of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease are Cefoxitin, Oflaxocin, Clindamycin. If left untreated, pelvic inflammatory disease can lead to severe and permanent damage of the reproductive organs.

Intrauterine Device IUD

IUD - Intra Uterine Device is a birth control measure that prevents fertilization. The IUD is inserted inside a woman's uterus to prevent pregnancy. This is a highly reliable form of birth control - nearly 150 million women use it worldwide. The IUD prevents pregnancy by either interfering with the movement of sperm to fertilize the egg or by preventing implantation of a fertilized egg.


Modern IUDs resemble a matchstick and have a T shaped bar across the top. When inserted into the uterus, the arms of the T open out and extend horizontally across the uterus. This birth control measure is nearly 11/2 inches long and is usually made of copper and plastic. The Copper IUDs can be kept in place for nearly 10 years and have a low failure rate. The progesterone- based IUDs release a form of progesterone that makes the mucus in the uterus sticky thereby preventing sperm from getting to the uterus.

The IUD offers a woman birth control without affecting the hormone levels in her body. Another advantage is that fertility is restored as soon as the IUD is removed. The IUD is a cost effective method of preventing pregnancy. It can be safely used during breast-feeding and does not involve routine check ups. IUDs however do not provide any protection against sexually transmitted diseases. An IUD is a preferred form of birth control when you are married or have only one sexual partner. Women who have had a history of ectopic pregnancies must not use IUD as a birth control measure. It is also not advised for women with uterine abnormalities, heavy bleeding and fibroids. No woman must get an IUD inserted unless she is certain that she is not pregnant. IUDs are not advised for teenagers and women who have never had children.


Side effects of IUDs may be an increased risk of PID - Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. Some women complain of heavier periods on account of the IUD. Spotting between periods is another complaint by women who have opted for IUD. A rare possibility is of the IUD perforating the uterus. In about 5% of the cases, the IUD is expelled from the uterus into the vagina in the first few months of use.


Infertility in woman

A compete medical history and physical examination is the first step undertaken to investigate the cause of infertility. Menstrual history, family history of infertility and sexual factors are examined. Blood and urine tests to determine hormonal levels, prolactin levels, hyperthyroidism and diabetes are taken to evaluate the possible causes of infertility. Hormonal imbalances are sometimes caused by pituitary gland tumors.


Blocked fallopian tubes do not allow the egg to travel to the uterus and can be a cause for infertility. One of the primary tests for detecting infertility in women is to check whether she is ovulating correctly. This can be done by monitoring body temperature and checking the texture of the cervical mucus.

Hysterosalpingogram: In this test for checking the infertility of women, an x-ray of the fallopian tubes and uterus is taken after they are injected with dye. The x-ray displays the shape of the uterus and the state of the fallopian tubes. This diagnostic test is also useful in diagnosing conditions such as endometrial polyps, fibroid tumors and structural abnormalities of the uterus or fallopian tubes.

Laparoscopy: This is a test for checking the fallopian tubes and other female reproductive organs for disease. Chromosomal tests are conducted to detect sperm abnormalities and other abnormal patterns in the man and woman.


  • Age is a factor that reduces a woman's chances for fertility. Women above 35 years have decreasing fertility. The decreasing fertility can be on account of the higher rate of chromosomal damage that eggs undergo as time goes by.
  • The amount of fat in a woman's body may have a bearing on her ability to conceive. Most of the estrogen in a woman's body is manufactured in her ovaries but some of it is produced in the fat cells. Too high or low weight levels can be a cause for infertility. Decreased body fat in marathon runners and those who indulge in heavy exercise may result in irregular menstrual cycles. Similarly women with eating disorders and restrictive diets can experience infertility. Disturbance in the estrogen balance can throw the reproductive cycle out of gear.
  • Occupational and lifestyle factors also play no small role in the process of reproductive health. Exposure to high levels of chemicals and toxic substances, radiation and high temperatures can have a bearing on a woman's fertility. Women who smoke one or more packs a day or consume caffeine or alcohol in excess are at a risk of infertility.
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is a term that covers a gamut of infections affecting the reproductive organs of a woman. Infection in the fallopian tubes (salpingitis) is a common cause of infertility in women. Frequent bouts of infection can lead to tubal damage.
  • Ovulation problems caused by hormonal disorders account for nearly a third of all problems of infertility in women. Resultant disorders could range from empty follicles or failure of the ovarian follicle to rupture. The hormonal rhythm is a delicate balance; a slight imbalance of which can cause ovulation disorders.
  • Endometriosis is a situation when fragments of the endometrial lining are implanted in other areas of the pelvis leading to cysts that can result in infertility in women.
  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is a major cause of infertility in women in America. This is characterized by high levels of male hormones - androgen and testosterone. This results in inability to produce mature eggs and also manifests in symptoms such as acne and increased facial hair.
  • Some women's bodies develop antibodies to sperm, which cause infertility and miscarriage. Adrenal or thyroid deficiencies can result in premature ovarian failure resulting in infertility.

Here is how it works

Enter your health or medical queries in our Artificial Intelligence powered Application here. Our Natural Language Navigational engine knows that words form only the outer superficial layer. The real meaning of the words are deduced from the collection of words, their proximity to each other and the context.

Check all your health queries

Diseases, Symptoms, Tests and Treatment arranged in alphabetical order:

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z

Popular Topics
Free Health App
Free Android Health App Free WebApp for iPhones


Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: September 23, 2019