The pericardium is a thin membrane surrounding the heart. When this membrane is swollen or disturbed, it leads to Pericarditis. The inflamed pericardium increases the lubricating fluid surrounding the heart, thereby laying pressure on the heart. Pericarditis usually occurs after a heart attack or trauma. Any tumor or auto-immune disease can also bring on pericarditis.
Acute pericarditis causes sudden pain. This happens when the pericardium brushes against the heart's outer layers. Bacterial, viral or fungal infections can bring on pericarditis. This sometimes leads to pus in the pericardial sac. Pericarditis that occurs after a heart attack or surgery is referred to as Dressler's syndrome. It is a body autoimmune reaction. Constrictive Pericarditis occurs when the pericardial layers become stiff and stick together. This leads to swelling on the hands and feet as well as atrial fibrillation. Symptoms of pericarditis include shortness of breath while lying down and abdominal swelling. There may be low-grade fever and overall fatigue. Dry cough is noticed in some patients suffering from pericarditis. Chest pain with pericarditis is usually stabbing and felt in the center of the heart.
Diagnosis of pericarditis is done with ECG, MRI and chest x-rays. Complete Blood Count (CBC) and other blood tests to measure cardiac enzymes aid in diagnosing pericarditis. Rest is recommended and in severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary. NSAIDS are prescribed to decrease the pain and inflammation. Any infection is treated with antibiotics. If atrial fibrillation is noticed, anti-arrhythmic are prescribed. Sometimes corticosteroids are used for treating inflammation. Diuretics aid in removing excess fluid. The pericardial fluid may be drained to aid better functioning of the heart.
Pneumonectomy is a surgical removal of the lung. This is done on patients suffering from lung cancer, COPD and emphysema. When a person is suffering from lung cancer, it has to be ascertained if the cancer has not spread. CT scan and bone scan can help. When the patient has a tumor near the lung center, Pneumonectomy is done when there is no other option. In a simple Pneumonectomy surgery, only the affected lung is removed. In extra pleural Pneumonectomy, a part of the pericardium and parietal pleura is also removed.
Tuberculosis, TB or Pulmonary tuberculosis is a bacterial contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Persons with weakened immune system, infants and elderly people are at higher risk for tuberculosis. You can be at greater risk if you are in frequent contact with persons suffering TB. Poor nutrition and sanitation contribute to the risk factor. Many drug-resistant strains of TB have made it more difficult to treat the disease. Pulmonary tuberculosis shows up with symptoms like fatigue, fever, cough with mucus and blood, chest pain, difficulty in breathing and unexplained weight loss. A person suffering TB will have enlarged lymph nodes and pleural effusion. Bronchoscopy, chest x-ray and sputum culture can aid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary TB is treated with Isoniazid, Rifampin, Ethambutol, Streptomycin or Moxifloxacin. Treatment usually lasts for 6 months or longer.
Extra pulmonary tuberculosis or Miliary tuberculosis
Tuberculosis can also affect other parts of the body such as bones, lymphatic system, central nervous system and genital or urinary system. Disseminated tuberculosis or Miliary tuberculosis is a contagious bacterial infection that has spread from the lungs to other parts of the body through the blood or lymph system. This type of TB can also affect the larynx, skin and pericardium too.
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Bibliography / Reference
Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: June 16, 2021