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Ultrasound

Ultrasonography is a medical imaging technique that is also called ultrasound scanning or sonography. High frequency sound waves and their echoes and used in this technique for obtaining images from inside the human body. The echoes of sound waves reflected from the human body are recorded and displayed as a real-time visual image. This technique is similar to the echo location used by bats, whales and dolphins. The sonar used by submarines also operates the same technique. Ultrasound is useful method to examine many of the body's internal organs like heart, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, kidneys and bladder.

Movement of the internal tissues and organs are captured in ultrasound. Ultrasonography enables the physicians to diagnose a variety of disease conditions and also assess the damage caused to the systems. The ultrasound machine transmits high frequency sound pulses into the human body by using probes. These sound waves that travel into the body hit a boundary between the tissues inside the body and reflect the sound waves to the probe. Some waves travel even further and they reach another boundary and then get reflected back. The waves that are reflected are picked up by the probe and relayed back into the ultrasound machine.

The ultrasound machine in turn calculates the distance from the probe to the tissue or organ by using the speed of sound tissue and the time of each echo's return. The machine displays these distances and intensities of the echoes on the screen. Through the echoes that are produced the sonologist can identify how far away an object is, how large it is, its shape and consistency (fluid, solid or mixed). Two dimensional images are formed and reflected on the screen. Different types of ultrasound are used for different disease conditions. Ultrasound is used in a variety of clinical settings including obstetrics and gynecology, cardiology and cancer detection.

Gynecologist

Gynecologists are doctors who specialize in women's health. They primarily deal with diseases relating to the female reproductive organs. Obstetricians are doctors who also specialize in women's health and focus more on management of pregnancy and childbirth. It is pretty common to see that gynecologists are obstetricians and vice-versa. Gynecologists have to complete medical school and then further specialize in the field of gynecology and obstetrics. Modern days have seen both these services clubbed together and practiced together. Gynecologists/obstetricians carry out the following tasks:

  • Examine pregnant women and ensure their pregnancy is proceeding well. They advice women on the various conditions they face during the pregnancy phase.
  • They give specialized treatments for the patients as recommended by their general physicians and perform surgeries in the required patients.
  • They advice the patients on the various contraception methods available and suggest the on best suitable for them.
  • Give specialized treatment for infertility either through medications or surgical processes.
  • Deliver babies either through normal deliveries or caesarean sections.
  • Check on the health of the mother and the infant during and after the delivery.
  • They treat conditions like amenorrhoea (absence of menstrual periods) and dysmenorrhea (agonizing menstrual periods).
  • Treat cancer in the reproductive organs such as uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, vagina etc.

Latest techniques employed in gynecology

The use of latest technology in the field of gynecology/obstetrics has made it easier for the diagnosis and treatment of gynecological disorders


  • Vaginal scans have paved way to study the cervix ovaries, uterus and its contents in a detailed manner.
  • Pap smear helps check for any abnormal changes in the cervix cells called dysplasia.
  • Laparoscopy is another advancement that helps in processes like hysterectomy.
  • MRI and CAT scans are used to study uterine malformation etc.
  • Vaginal swabs are used to study bacterial growth.


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Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: June 24, 2019