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Retinal Detachment

The retina is critical to your eyesight since it sends messages to the brain via the optic nerve. When the retina gets separated from the back wall of the eye, it leads to a condition of retinal detachment. Retinal detachment leads to loss of function of the retina due to loss of blood supply and nutrition. It is imperative that a condition of retinal detachment be attended to immediately to avoid permanent loss of vision. Some patients may suffer a condition where there is a tear in a small area of the retina. Rhegmatogenous detachment of the retina occurs when there is a tear in the retina. On the other hand, tractional retinal detachment is caused due to scar tissue on the retina. When retinal detachment occurs due to an inflammatory disease or injury, it is a case of exudative retinal detachment.


Retinal detachment can be caused due to advanced diabetes or an inflammatory disease. Trauma can also cause the retina to get detached. Any leakage of vitreous liquid accumulating under the retina can cause the retina to get detached. This can happen due to aging. Persons who suffer weak areas in the retinal periphery or have undergone severe eye injury are at risk for retinal detachment. Signs of retinal detachment include sudden flashes of light in the affected eye and blurred vision. Many floating debris might appear in the vision.


The size and location of the retinal detachment decides the kind of treatment that would be most suitable. Small retinal tears are treated with cryopexy or retinal cryotherapy that involves freezing of the area around the tear. Laser surgery is used to fuse the retina to the underlying tissue. Laser surgery can be done sans incision and the patient suffers minimal discomfort. More complex cases would require vitrectomy and scleral buckling procedures to seal the detached retina. Surgery is not always a guarantee of restored vision as it's success hinges on how much of the retina is detached and for how long.

Keratosis

Thickening of the skin can be termed as keratosis. It resembles an overgrowth restricted to a particular area on the upper layer of the skin resembling a wart or callus.


Actinic keratosis / solar keratosis: Thick brittle and scaly patches in the skin that indicate pre malignancy, actinic keratosis indicates the progress of skin cancer. This condition is commonly referred to as precancerous condition. This condition is common among white skinned people and in people aged above 30. People diagnosed with this condition should visit the doctor on a regular basis to keep a track on these bumps. Constant exposure to sun can cause this condition. It is common in the exposed areas of the body such as chest, forearms, ears, neck, backs of hands, face, scalp and lips. Symptoms include scaly patches, rashes that don't itch or pain and reddish-brown skin. Actinic keratosis is treated through surgery. If the bumps are large, laser surgery is performed, for smaller bumps cryotherapy is performed.


Seborrheic keratosis: Small pink and brown warts represent seborrheic keratosis, this type of keratosis is benign. They resemble age spots and appear with aging. The exact cause for this condition is clearly not known. The growth occurs in areas that are more often exposed to the sun. Genetic reasons could also cause this condition. It is characterized by yellow-brown warts or papules. Seborrheic keratosis requires no treatment as it is harmless but picking at the spot might lead to an infection. In case the person affected by the condition prefers removal of these growths, they can be removed through cryotherapy, electrocautery (burning the growth with electric current) and curettage (scraping off the surface of the skin using specialized instruments).


Keratosis pilaris: Red bumps on the skin indicate keratosis pilaris, the skin surface also gets rough and bumpy. It is commonly referred to as chicken skin. This type of keratosis is usually mistaken for pimples. Keratosis pilaris is more common in children and settles down on its own as they grow up. Excessive keratin produced in the human body causes this condition. This condition is also believed to be hereditary. This condition appears like rough bumps on the skin that might get itchy. There is no treatment for keratosis pilaris. Exfoliation and moisturizing the affected area can make the skin soft and smooth.


Electrosurgery

Electrosurgery is a surgical procedure where high-frequency electric current is used to cut, coagulate tissue or remove lesions. Typically electrosurgery is suited for dermatological conditions such as warts, benign skin tumors, Seborroeic keratosis and skin tags. With limited blood loss, electrosurgery allows precision cuts so as to burn tissue and fulgurate it. While it is not very painful for small lesions, local anaesthesia is used for larger lesions. Electrosurgery is an alternative to laser surgery and cryosurgery.

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Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: June 20, 2019