A kidney biopsy is often recommended for those who notice blood in the urine (hematuria), excess protein in the urine (proteinuria) or progressive kidney failure. Kidney biopsy might reveal the causes for improper functioning or rejection of a transplanted kidney. If urine tests, ultrasound or CT scan reveal possible kidney problems, kidney biopsy can aid in determining the cause.
A patient undergoing kidney biopsy is given sedation through IV. The biopsy needle is inserted through the skin with the aid of ultrasound. A small sample tissue is taken for examination. There is likely to be mild soreness in the muscle and some blood in the urine for the next 24 hours. Serious complications include puncture of a major blood vessel or bleeding into the kidney. Abnormal results of kidney biopsy show signs of scarring or inadequate blood flow or signs of disease such as renal cancer. Patients with blood clotting disorder are not advised to undergo this diagnostic test. Obesity, UTI, hypertension are some factors that can affect the accuracy of kidney biopsy results.
Uremia is regarded as the end stage of Kidney Failure. Uremia is also called the 'second cancer'. Uremia is related to the second point filtering blood. The kidney is impaired and does not filter the waste products that result from the body's metabolism. When this function fails, the waste products and blood urea nitrogen accumulate in the bloodstream. This build-up is Azotaemia. Mild levels of azotaemia may not show symptoms. But continued kidney failure to filter the waste result in symptoms and this condition is called uremia.
Uremic patients show varied signs and symptoms collectively called as uremic syndrome.
Gastrointestinal tract: Loss of appetite, discomfort in the abdomen, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe dehydration, oral ulcer, Glossitis (inflammation of the tongue) and urine taste in breath.
Nerves related: Headache, dizziness, lethargy, drowsiness, weakness, fatigue. In advanced stage symptoms such as irritability, muscle trembling, seizures and convulsions may be experienced.
Cardiovascular system: Hypertension and arrhythmia and in the advanced stage heart failure can happen.
Blood forming or hematopoietic system: Serious anemia and in the advanced stage bleeding can happen.
Respiratory system: Shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, chronic cough, respiratory disorders such as pleural effusion (fluid accumulation in the lungs), pneumonia, uremic bronchitis, pleurisy.
To decide on the course of treatment the cause of Uremia is of great significance. As Uremia can be life-threatening, quick and proper treatment may reverse the illness condition. The chief cause is of course, kidney failure or damage to kidneys.
Diseases that affect kidney function:
How is Uremia diagnosed?
Most renal disease including Uremia do not cause symptoms in the early stages. Uremia is likely to be noticed incidentally from blood or urine tests done for other health issues. Urinalysis is done to detect protein and blood in urine. Blood clotting test, kidney biopsy and stool culture to ascertain presence of a certain type of E.coli bacteria or other bacteria.
How is Uremia treated?
If the diagnosis is confirmed, the patient would be hospitalized for observation and treatment. The cause determines the treatment.
Nephrologists are specialists who specialize in diagnosing and treating diseases related to the kidney. They are trained to mange kidney disorders too. Pediatric nephrologists treat the same conditions in infants, children, and young adults. Nephrologists should complete medical school and then complete three years in internal medicine and further specialize for two years in the field of nephrology. Pediatric nephrologists have to further take special certification to qualify as pediatric Nephrologist. Nephrologists also termed as renal physicians treat diseases related to the kidney, any malfunctioning in the kidney can affect other organs of the body.
Bibliography / Reference
Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: January 22, 2019