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Chondrodystrophy

Chondrodystrophy is a genetic disorder that affects the skeletal cartilage resulting in dwarfism. Due to genetic mutation affecting the hyaline cartilage, skeletal dysplasia occurs leading to osteoarthritis. The person suffering from this disorder has a normal sized trunk with shorter limbs. Chondrodystrophy is usually accompanied by metabolic and hormonal disorders. Usually x-rays and bone growth patterns are studied to diagnose Chondrodystrophy.

Urinalysis

Urinalysis refers to a group of tests conducted on urine sample to determine the various chemical components of the urine. Urine analysis is an examination of the urine sample that gives useful information regarding the renal and metabolic disorders, kidney or urinary tract infections, diabetes and host of other diseases. Urinalysis does not diagnose the disease itself, rather the presence of abnormal substances in the urine that will help direct the course of further evaluation and diagnosis. Depending upon the symptoms reported, urinalysis is conducted in three different phases.


1. Visual analysis or physical examination
2. Chemical analysis
3. Microscopic analysis


Physical examination of urine

Color: Normally urine looks pale yellow; any change in the color of the urine indicates some abnormality, for example dark yellow urine indicates dehydration whereas bile pigments cause brown urine. Urine turns red when there is blood in the urine. Sometimes consumption of certain foods such as blackberries, rhubarb and beets turns the urine red.

Clarity: Normal urine is usually clear, cloudy urine indicates the presence of bacteria, blood, sperm, crystals, or mucus. Odor: Normal urine has a nutty odor to it whereas diabetes gives urine a fruity odor and bacterial infections lead to bad odor of the urine.

Chemical analysis of urine

Chemical examination is normally conducted with the help of the dipstick. The change in the colors of the different pads on the dipstick indicates varied health conditions.

pH balance: pH balance measures the acidic and alkaline balance of the urine. The lower or higher pH indicates kidney disorders. pH balance can be changed by consuming the appropriate diet.

Protein: Protein test normally involves examining the albumin levels in the urine. The elevated albumin level is the initial symptom of kidney disorder.

Glucose: Higher glucose levels in the urine is associated with diabetes and other conditions like hormonal disorders, liver disease and pregnancy.

Ketones: When the body does not get enough carbohydrates, it starts metabolizing the fats to gather energy and in process releases ketones into the urine, thus indicating the low levels of insulin.

Blood: Urine is also tested for the presence of red blood cells. Various kidney and urinary tract diseases and trauma, injury, medications, smoking, or strenuous exercise lead to the contamination of urine with the blood.

Nitrites: UTI or urinary tract infection changes the urinary nitrates into nitrites. Therefore the presence of nitrites indicates the presence of UTI. Likewise urine is also tested for Leukocytes as they too indicate the presence of UTI.

Microscopic urine analysis

This test involves collection of urine in centrifuge to be spun for few minutes, so that sediments settle at the bottom. The sediment substance is then spread on the slide and examined under microscope. The urine is tested for the following:

If the urine shows red or white blood cells, it signals an inflammation, kidney disease or an injury of the ureters, bladder, or urethra. Microscopic examination of urine also reveals the presence of crystals. Large number of Crystals in the urine indicates dehydration, pH imbalance, UTI or a condition called Urolithiasis, signifying kidney stone or bladder stones. Urine is also tested for bacteria, yeast cells, or parasites, as any of these organisms in the urine signals infection. Increased quantity of epithelial cells in urine could indicate some health problems.



Infertility in woman

A compete medical history and physical examination is the first step undertaken to investigate the cause of infertility. Menstrual history, family history of infertility and sexual factors are examined. Blood and urine tests to determine hormonal levels, prolactin levels, hyperthyroidism and diabetes are taken to evaluate the possible causes of infertility. Hormonal imbalances are sometimes caused by pituitary gland tumors.


Blocked fallopian tubes do not allow the egg to travel to the uterus and can be a cause for infertility. One of the primary tests for detecting infertility in women is to check whether she is ovulating correctly. This can be done by monitoring body temperature and checking the texture of the cervical mucus.

Hysterosalpingogram: In this test for checking the infertility of women, an x-ray of the fallopian tubes and uterus is taken after they are injected with dye. The x-ray displays the shape of the uterus and the state of the fallopian tubes. This diagnostic test is also useful in diagnosing conditions such as endometrial polyps, fibroid tumors and structural abnormalities of the uterus or fallopian tubes.

Laparoscopy: This is a test for checking the fallopian tubes and other female reproductive organs for disease. Chromosomal tests are conducted to detect sperm abnormalities and other abnormal patterns in the man and woman.


  • Age is a factor that reduces a woman's chances for fertility. Women above 35 years have decreasing fertility. The decreasing fertility can be on account of the higher rate of chromosomal damage that eggs undergo as time goes by.
  • The amount of fat in a woman's body may have a bearing on her ability to conceive. Most of the estrogen in a woman's body is manufactured in her ovaries but some of it is produced in the fat cells. Too high or low weight levels can be a cause for infertility. Decreased body fat in marathon runners and those who indulge in heavy exercise may result in irregular menstrual cycles. Similarly women with eating disorders and restrictive diets can experience infertility. Disturbance in the estrogen balance can throw the reproductive cycle out of gear.
  • Occupational and lifestyle factors also play no small role in the process of reproductive health. Exposure to high levels of chemicals and toxic substances, radiation and high temperatures can have a bearing on a woman's fertility. Women who smoke one or more packs a day or consume caffeine or alcohol in excess are at a risk of infertility.
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is a term that covers a gamut of infections affecting the reproductive organs of a woman. Infection in the fallopian tubes (salpingitis) is a common cause of infertility in women. Frequent bouts of infection can lead to tubal damage.
  • Ovulation problems caused by hormonal disorders account for nearly a third of all problems of infertility in women. Resultant disorders could range from empty follicles or failure of the ovarian follicle to rupture. The hormonal rhythm is a delicate balance; a slight imbalance of which can cause ovulation disorders.
  • Endometriosis is a situation when fragments of the endometrial lining are implanted in other areas of the pelvis leading to cysts that can result in infertility in women.
  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is a major cause of infertility in women in America. This is characterized by high levels of male hormones - androgen and testosterone. This results in inability to produce mature eggs and also manifests in symptoms such as acne and increased facial hair.
  • Some women's bodies develop antibodies to sperm, which cause infertility and miscarriage. Adrenal or thyroid deficiencies can result in premature ovarian failure resulting in infertility.

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Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: November 12, 2019