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MPV blood test

MPV (Mean platelet volume) blood test measures the average number of platelets in a volume of blood. When the average size of platelets rises, it can indicate risk of heart attacks or strokes. Lower than normal MPV may be caused by aplastic anemia or inflammatory bowel disease.

Aspirin Resistance Blood Test

Close to 26 million Americans or 20% of adults in USA take low-dose Aspirin daily to prevent heart attacks and strokes. Doctors prescribe Aspirin in low doses to patients to lower the risk of heart attack or stroke, primary or secondary in nature. Aspirin benefits the heart in many ways.

Checks inflammation: Inflammation in the heart is a result of plaque build-up. Over time the plaque build-up narrows the arteries and restricts blood flow. There are chances of blood clot formation which can obstruct blood flow or break off the plaque. This can deeply affect the organ connected to the artery. There is also a possibility of the plaque to break off and cause an obstruction. Clogged arteries increase the chances of heart attack, stroke and sometimes even death. Low dose aspirin becomes essential.

Acetylsalicylic Acid fights inflammation by blocking the action of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase. By blocking this enzyme, the body finds it hard to produce prostaglandins, the chemicals that facilitate the inflammatory response.

Stalls blood clots: Aspirin interferes with and stalls the formation of blood clots. It blocks the action of chemicals that produce blood clots. With specific reference to the heart, blood clot formation can block the artery, the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissue. This increases the risk of heart attack and stroke. If Aspirin is taken, it prevents artery-blocking blood clot formation and the risk is considerably reduced.

Every patient who is prescribed Aspirin need not necessarily respond well and get the preventive benefits. In spite of a daily aspirin, patients with continued high levels of thromboxane are considered to be at increased risk of heart attack or stroke compared to patients without elevated levels. To determine and evaluate that the non-response is due to Aspirin resistance, a test is required. One way to determine is through Aspirin resistance blood test.

People who are likely to be categorized as Aspirin resistance include:

  • If diagnosed with a disease such as peripheral vascular disease and other inflammatory processes that produce chemicals (thromboxane) that can reduce aspirin's beneficial effect.

  • Those taking medications (such as ibuprofen, Naproxen) that interfere with the intended anti-clotting effect of aspirin.

  • Those undergoing high levels of stress

  • If genetically poor responders to NSAID therapy

  • If the dosage is far too low

  • Diabetic persons

  • Overweight people

  • Older adults.

A blood test using a specific device is used to diagnose Aspirin resistance. The test measures the thromboxane levels (higher levels indicate that aspirin is less effective). The purpose of the test is to determine if a patient is likely to benefit from aspirin. If the blood sample shows that aspirin doesn't inhibit blood clotting as it should, the patient is deemed aspirin resistant. Test results are available in less than 10 minutes.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder that is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction. While it can lead to daytime drowsiness and lethargy, it can be potentially life threatening if left untreated. Sleep apnea is a condition where the blockage of the airway prevents air from getting into the lungs. This leads to snoring at regular pace and short periods of time where the breathing ceases. Apnea is the lack of spontaneous breathing. The patient may become limp and lifeless, have a seizure or turn bluish.

This is followed by sudden attempts to breathe with a loud gasp and snort. Consequently this condition affects the sleep and the person is not well rested. Besides the oxygen levels remain low leading to drowsiness and tiredness. Severe sleep apnea is likely to cause pulmonary hypertension. A large neck or collar size can be one of the causes of obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep apnea can be potentially life threatening since it can cause heart attacks or strokes.

Prolonged apnea is called as respiratory arrest. In children, this can quickly lead to cardiac arrest in which the heart stops beating whereas in adults, cardiac arrest usually is the first to happen followed by respiratory arrest. In adults, common causes of apnea and respiratory arrest include choking, drug overdose, near-drowning, head injury and cardiac arrest. In children, the causes may be different - prematurity, swelling of the airways, choking on a foreign object, seizures, regurgitating food or near-drowning.

Obstructive sleep apnea: This is a condition where tissues of the body obstruct the airways during sleep. Obstructive Sleep apnea is common in obese men who sleep on their backs. Other factors include Smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, emphysema, and an inherited tendency toward a narrowed airway.

Diagnosis of sleep apnea

  • ECG to show arrhythmia during sleep

  • Echocardiogram to study the heart functioning

  • Thyroid function tests

  • Sleep studies

Sleep apnea treatment

Treatment for sleep apnea can range from lifestyle modification, medication to even surgery in some cases. Weight loss and avoiding smoking are some of the changes that may need to be introduced into the lifestyle to prevent episodes of sleep apnea.

The risk of obstructive sleep apnea choking can be reduced by avoiding alcohol, tobacco smoking, tranquilizers and sedatives before bed. There is a surgical procedure called as LAUP (Laser Assisted Uvula Palatoplasty) where removal of the offending tissue is done to allow for unobstructed airflow.

Sleep apnea is often treated with surgery that removes the cause of obstruction. Enlarged tonsils or adenoids are removed to cure sleep apnea. Another sleep apnea surgery is UPPP - Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, which involves removal of excess tissue from the back of the throat. This is done to increase the size of the upper airway. Usually it involves removal of the soft palate that hangs down the back of the throat. Such sleep apnea surgery is performed under general anesthesia. These days it is done under local anesthesia with laser assistance. Nasal reconstruction surgery straightens the nasal septum and shrinks the nasal tissue, thereby improving nasal airway. Changing the bony structure in the upper airway allows air to move more freely, especially during sleep.

The CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) mask uses air pressure to push the tongue forward. This opens the throat to air and reduces snoring and apnea. It does not cure sleep apnea but relieves the patient by preventing recurrent episodes. Personalized sleep apnea masks are created to fit exactly on your face, nose, cheeks, lips and forehead. The sleep apnea mask is secured well so that there are no leaks.

Tags: #MPV blood test #Aspirin Resistance Blood Test #Sleep Apnea
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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: December 7, 2022