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Esophageal ulcer

An esophageal ulcer also occurs due to bacterium H. pylori. But they are largely seen in persons who suffer GERD - GastroEsophageal Reflux Disease . When the contents of the stomach are pushed back into the esophagus and throat because the diaphragm in unable to prevent the backlash. Alcohol abuse, smoking and excessive aspirin or ibuprofen use are common causes for formation of Esophagitis-Peptic Ulcer.Pain is felt in the region above the navel and is worse when the stomach is empty. Other symptoms include blood in vomit, appetite changes, nausea and dark tarry stools. HPV, HSV and candida infection can lead to esophageal ulcers. Esophageal ulcers are usually treated with antibiotics. Acid reducers are also prescribed. Medications to reduce acid production help in protecting the stomach lining. Eating the right foods that do not provoke acid production in the stomach helps tackle ulcers.

Allergic Rhinitis

Rhinitis occurs when there is inflammation of the inner lining of the nose. Allergic Rhinitis is a condition where there is hypersensitivity by the immune system to allergens. Allergic rhinitis is triggered when the body responds to allergens by producing antibodies. Histamines are released into the bloodstream leading to allergic symptoms. Allergic rhinitis is a common upper respiratory infection that affects nearly a fifth of the population. Allergic rhinitis is often associated with severe asthma, otitis media and sinusitis. This manifests in symptoms such as sneezing, nasal congestion, stuffy nose and itchy eyes. Some persons suffering from allergic rhinitis may experience frequent headaches and difficulty in hearing and smelling. This condition can bring on fatigue, sleep disorders and drowsiness.


Seasonal allergic rhinitis is also known as hay fever and is noticed during autumn. On the other hand perennial allergic rhinitis is a condition where the patient suffers rhinitis symptoms due to exposure to pet hair, carpeting, upholstery or air pollution. Patients suffering from perennial allergenic rhinitis tend to notice the symptoms irrespective of the season. Some of the common allergens are pollen, mold, animal dander, feathers, dust and grass. The symptoms are usually noticed more in winter. Certain foods and spices might increase nasal secretions associated with allergenic rhinitis. Stress and gastroesophageal reflux can trigger the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. There is post nasal drip and cough and may be accompanied by loss of smell.


Antihistamines are prescribed to block the action of the histamines created by allergy. But antihistamines tend to cause drowsiness. Decongestants can help in alleviating the symptoms of allergic rhinitis such as stuffy nose. Decongestants must be used with care on those suffering from , thyroid problems and heart conditions. Corticosteroids are useful in treating allergic rhinitis since they reduce the reaction by the body to the histamines. Steroid nasal sprays can help reduce nasal inflammation and allergy. Mucus thinning agents are prescribed for patients suffering from allergic rhinitis to make the nasal secretions less sticky so that they do not coagulate at the back of the nose and throat.


  • Keep away from pets if you are extremely allergic to animal dander
  • Use pillows made from hypoallergenic material such as dacron or polyester
  • Use HEPA filter for your bedroom and living area
  • Resort to vacuuming instead of dusting
  • Drink adequate fluids
  • Sleep with the head at a slight elevation
  • Balanced diet
  • Avoid nasal irritants like perfume, cigarette smoke, car exhaust and aerosol sprays

Aspiration Pneumonia

Aspiration pneumonia occurs when gastric contents, vomit or food distillate into the lungs and cause inflammation of the lungs and bronchial tubes. The aspirated material is responsible for introducing bacteria that is not normally found in the lungs. Pus forms as a result of this infection. The infection can then spread to the blood and other areas of the body. It can bring on shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Sometimes it can cause pus to collect in the lungs. The severity of aspiration pneumonia depends on the volume and acidity of the aspirated contents. The effects of aspiration pneumonia can range from mechanical obstruction of airways to acute respiratory distress. Older persons or persons with altered mental status are more likely to face this emergency situation. Aspiration pneumonia is also a coincident risk of head trauma, acute stroke or metabolic derangement. Elderly hospitalized patients and those suffering from neurological diseases or gastroesophageal reflux are at increased risk of aspiration pneumonia.


Symptoms of aspiration pneumonia are fever and cough with foul-smelling or blood-stained mucus. Patients experience shortness of breath and chest pain. Increased heart rate and wheezing is also noticed. Aspiration pneumonia can be fatal if not attended to in time. Hospitalization may be required for management of the illness. Treatment measures vary depending on the severity of the pneumonia. Chest x-ray, blood culture and sputum culture can aid diagnosis and treatment. Swallowing studies are conducted on the patient to assess the swallowing function. Intravenous antibiotic medications are used to treat aspiration pneumonia. Articial breathing apparatus is used to aid the patient and keep the airways open. Oxygen therapy is also resorted to.

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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: December 13, 2019