The contraceptive diaphragm is a barrier type of birth control like the condom or female condom. Made of soft latex, the diaphragm must be inserted carefuly after squeezing it into an arc. Then it springs against the walls of the vagina acting as a protection against pregnancy. It must not be left inside but removed within 24 hours. The contraceptive diagphragm can be used by washing it with warm soapy water. It offers some amount of protection against sexually transmitted diseases. But the woman is more prone to UTI. Also it might be uncomfortable if the wrong size of diaphragm is chosen.
Using a spermicide is a form of contraception that is best used in combination of diaphragm, female condom or sponges. It can be safely used during breast feeding. A spermicide can be used in the form of a cream, foam or suppository. It prevents sperms from moving, thereby preventing fertilization. Some spermicides act as a barrier to entry of sperm into the cervix. A spermicide must be used about 10 minutes before you have intercourse. It is effective for about an hour after insertion. Some brands of spermicides cause irritation. Many women complain of spermicides being messy. Nonoxynol-9 is a commonly used spermicide. Read instructions on inserting spermicides carefully. Failure to use it correctly reduces its effectiveness.
A hernia is a condition where a part of the body protrudes through an opening into another part of the body. Most hernias are found in the abdominal area. A hiatal hernia is usually located at the opening of the diaphragm and is an anatomical abnormality of the esophagus. Then the hiatal hernia displaces the muscle band at the lower end of the esophagus (lower esophageal sphincter) and leads to gastroesophageal reflux. As a result, stomach acid flows into the esophagus leading to esophagitis. Hiatal hernia is noticed among obese persons and those who have sustained an injury to that part of the body. Women are at increased risk and so are smokers.
Heartburn is the primary complaint of patients suffering from hiatal hernia. There is belching and feeling of vomiting. Many patients feel that there is something lodged in their chest. Coughing, vomiting or physical exertion can worsen the symptoms of hiatal hernia. The symptoms worsen during pregnancy, lying down or lifting heavy objects. In some cases, a hiatal hernia may go unnoticed. Lifestyle changes like eliminating coffee, alcohol and smoking can help relieve some of the symptoms associated with hiatus hernia. Sleeping with the head at a mild elevation can help prevent stomach acid reflux at night.
A barium x-ray can help in examining the upper digestive tract and checking for any backlash of stomach contents into the esophagus. An endoscopy helps diagnose a hiatal hernia and check for any inflammation of the esophagus. Antacids can help in neutralizing stomach acid. Drugs such as ranitidine, omeprazole or cimetidine are prescribed to reduce the secretion of stomach acid. Surgery is resorted to when there is a possibility of reduced or obstructed blood supply. This is done through laparoscopy to reduce pain, scarring and chances of infection.
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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: August 20, 2019