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A1 Blood Glucose Test

Blood glucose analysis is very significant in the diagnosis of cardiac conditions. In many cardiac disorders, the primary diagnostic approach is to determine the patientís blood glucose level to detect the underlying diabetic conditions. There is significant rise of type two diabetes diabetes on a global scale.


Type II diabetes is associated with the non-production of insulin by body cells. The sugars released into the blood as a result of metabolic pathway are carried to the cells. These sugars if retained in the blood cells can lead to diabetes. The estimation of the glycosylated red blood corpuscles determines the overall blood sugar composition for a particular duration of time in an individual. The average time to estimate the changes associated with blood sugar levels in an A1 C diagnostic method is two to three months. The A1 C test also provides a prophylactic approach to treat diabetes with respect to the dosage of medicines prescribed. The average blood sugar level estimated in a person without diabetes is 150mg/dl and the A1 C rate is measured at 6.5%.


Any A1C values above 6.5% indicate the onset of diabetes. This test is unique and appropriate to categorize the diabetic patients as it monitors the sugar level over a period of time. This helps the physicians analyze and prescribe drugs associated with diabetes, to potential or existing patients.


Principle of the A1C test

The red blood corpuscles contain a protein called hemoglobin that binds the sugar molecules in the blood. This phenomenon is called glycation. Increased number of sugar molecules lead to excess binding in the RBCs. The bound sugar molecules have a life span of 120 days. Thus the values pertaining to the A1C determine the sugar levels for a period of three months. The rise in the value of A1C indicates a diabetic condition. The A1C blood glucose values are directly associated with heart disease. Any A1C value over 6.5% indicates a greater risk of cardiovascular disease.

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia (also spelt as Hypoglycemia) is a condition where a person has low blood glucose. The level of glucose in the blood drops below 2.5mmol/l. Insulin produced in the pancreas helps in absorption of glucose from the blood. When the levels of insulin in the blood is high, it can result in extremely low levels of blood sugar or a condition of Hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia can result on account of excessive consumption of refined sugar and carbohydrates, soft drinks or caffeine. Hypoglycemia is sometimes noticed in persons on medications such as quinine, salicylates for rheumatic disease and propranolol for hypertension.

Other causes include:

  • Missing or skipping meals
  • Strenuous exercise
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • Tumor in the pancreas
  • Weakened pituitary gland
  • Reduced liver function
  • Overdose of insulin or diabetic tablets

A person suffering from hypoglycemia will notice symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, agitation and trembling. There is difficulty in concentration and sometimes temporary loss of consciousness. Hypoglycemia can cause double vision, temporary paralysis and seizures and abnormal behavior. The person suffering from hypoglycemia feels hungry and starts sweating profusely. Ignoring this condition can lead to hypoglycemic coma. It is essential to avoid repeated attacks of hypoglycemia since it can lead to fatal brain damage. An attack of hypoglycemia during driving or swimming can be disastrous. Night time hypoglycemia is characterized by sweating at night and headache on waking up.


Hypoglycemia is diagnosed by measuring the blood glucose levels. If there is any tumor in the pancreas, it is usually removed. Treatment for weakened pituitary and adrenal glands include suitable medication. To handle reactive hypoglycemia, it is essential to eat smaller meals spread out during the day. This can prevent large fluctuations in insulin secretion levels. Try and include complex carbohydrates in the diet. Never overload your body with very heavy large meals. Spacing out the meals allows better digestion and absorption. Smaller meals also helps keep weight in check and keeps acidity at bay. Snack on high-fiber food as it slows down the rise in blood sugar levels. Include fresh vegetables, fruits and whole grain cereal foods. Make lean proteins and reduced fat a part of your diet. Drink plenty of water.


Scleredema

The skin gets thick and hard and becomes red in color. Scleredema or Buschke disease is very rare and can affect people belonging to any age group. The condition varies from individual to individual. Scleredema is classified into three types:


Type I: Sets in due to a streptococcal infection in the throat.


Type II: Sets in due to unusual levels of immunoglobulin. This type of Scleredema does not occur due to an infection but starts gradually and remains for a longer period.


Type III : Scleredema adultorum of Buschke, is also referred to as 'Scleredema diabeticorum', and is more common in diabetics. It is more common in men than in women.


The exact cause for Scleredema is not known. This condition is often related to diabetes, though this condition might occur after a streptococcal throat infection or viral illness. When the condition is induced due to diabetes, men are affected more than women and when the condition is induced due to an infection, women are more affected than men. Thickening and hardening of the skin are the most common symptoms of scleredema. Other commonly reported symptoms include reddishness of the skin and difficulty in opening the eyes and the mouth. In very rare cases the liver, spleen, heart and throat might get affected. The skin resembles the skin of an orange.


Scleredema can be diagnosed by a doctor after a close examination of the patient. A sample of the skin is sent for biopsy to confirm the condition. Throat culture is performed to detect any streptococcal infection in the throat. The patient's blood glucose level is analyzed for diabetes. Medications are prescribed based on the condition that induces this condition. In case of diabetes, medications are prescribed to control the blood glucose levels, a strict diet and exercise schedule has to be followed to control diabetes. Scleredema induced due to an infection persists for a short span, the symptoms settle down within a period of 6 months to 2 years if the condition is induced due to an infection. If the condition is induced due to diabetes, it takes a longer time for the symptoms to settle down. In case of restricted movements, physical therapy is used to manage the condition.


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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: November 19, 2019