Bladder cancer usually surfaces in the lining of the bladder (transitional cells )and later spreads to other areas. Cases of bladder cancer are mostly noticed in persons over 60 years. Bladder cancer is often hereditary. Smoking and exposure to toxic chemicals increase the risk of bladder cancer. Men are more likely to develop bladder cancer than women. Persons who have repeated instances of urinary infection or have been using catheters for long are at increased risk for bladder cancer. Superficial bladder cancer in the initial stages indicates that the cancer is restricted to the surface of the inner lining of the bladder. Later it spreads to the inner lining and invades the wall of the bladder. The surrounding tissues, lymph nodes and other organs are the next to get affected by the cancerous cells.
Symptoms of bladder cancer include pain during urination and increased frequency of urination. The patient suffering from bladder cancer is likely to have pelvic pain. Blood is noticed in the urine. Blood clots are also sometimes noticed in the urine. Often there are no symptoms during the early stages of bladder cancer. A urologist will check the functioning of the kidneys and conduct a physical examination. IVU (Intravenous Urogram) is a diagnostic imaging tool that allows the doctor to examine the kidneys, ureters and bladder. Blood tests and chest x-ray aids in diagnosis of bladder cancer. The urologist might use a cystoscope to examine inside the bladder. A biopsy is often conducted.
Surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy are resorted to while treating bladder cancer. The treatment is based on the stage of bladder cancer. Drinking plenty of water and increasing the consumption of cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage and broccoli can minimize the chances of developing bladder cancer.
Bladder spasm is a condition in which there is a sudden urge to urinate. Bladder spasms are associated with a medical condition called as urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence is a condition where there is lack of bladder control. Older persons experience this condition because of the weakened muscular system and its functionality. Urinary incontinence which is caused by spasms that occur in the urinary bladder and is also associated with the control coordination maintained by the nervous system. In this condition the muscles that are associated with the urinary bladder and the nerves are impaired.
Bladder spasms also occur during pregnancy. This is caused as the fetus pushes the urinary bladder down initiating the urge to urinate frequently. Childbirth can also be associated with urinary leakage. In addition, conditions such as constipation and menopause also initiate the onset of bladder spasms which may result in urinary incontinence. Bladder spasms can also occur because of an overactive urinary bladder. This condition may occur in some people suddenly when they see or touch running water, drink water or even during their sleep.
Bladder control develops in children at a very young age and any delay associated with this development may lead to nocturnal urination. Urinary incontinence can also occur because of stress such as coughing, increased abdominal pressure and also during intense laughter. Urinary incontinence can be a result of underlying nervous system disorders such as Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. Other factors that may lead to urinary incontinence include trauma caused in the bladder region, infections of the urinary tract and also increased caffeine and alcohol intake or benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Diagnosis of bladder spasms
Diagnosis of urinary incontinence and associated bladder spasms is done by examining the history of the patient in association with the diet and lifestyle. Many people do not explain the incidences of urinary incontinence. Hence a thorough examination of the patient history is mandatory to evaluate the causes for the urinary incontinence. Urine cultures are suggested if the patient has a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. Patients are also advised to calculate the amount of fluid intake and relate it to the number of times they pass urine. Ultrasound and CT examination is done to identify underlying disorders of the prostate gland and also detect any kind of abnormal growth in the urinary bladder.
Treatment for Bladder spasms
Bladder spasms and associated urinary incontinence is a treatable condition. In case of muscular impairment, exercises pertaining to pelvic muscles are suggested to strengthen the muscles. Drugs such as alpha blockers, anti-depressants are suggested to reduce urinary incontinence. Bladder spasms are treated by administering anti-spasmodics such as propantheline. Surgical interventions are also done to treat urinary incontinence. Some of the procedures include the administration of artificial sphincter, male sling in some patients have also shown good results. Urinary diversion is suggested in case of bladder functionality loss or even damage. In this case an alternative pathway is made for the disposal of urine after the removal of the damaged urinary bladder.
The gall bladder is a small pear shaped organ on the underside of the liver that is used to store bile. When partially digested food passes from the stomach into the small intestine, the gall bladder expels bile to aid digestion. While gallstones usually form in the gallbladder; they can be found in bile; in the intrahepatic, hepatic, common bile, and cystic ducts. Cholelithiasis as Gallstones are called, often do not cause any symptoms. Gallstones are hard masses formed in the gallbladder or its associated passages. They are often discovered when having a routine x ray, abdominal surgery, or abdominal ultrasound. Cholangiography - radiographic examination of the bile duct is performed after injecting with a special dye to check the condition of Cholangitis - infection or inflammation of the bile ducts. Cholangitis manifests in the form of severe abdominal pain, fever and Jaundice.
When gallstones move from the gallbladder into the cystic duct of common bile duct (Choledocholithiasis), it can lead to a severe cramping pain in the upper right abdomen which can radiate to the right shoulder as a result of the blocked bile flow. This can last from a few minutes to a few hours. Cholesterol gallstones are more often noticed in women who are obese, on HRT or with elevated blood triglyceride. Black pigment gallstones are usually formed when there is increased destruction of RBC. Others who are likely to suffer gallstones are those suffering liver cirrhosis and biliary tract infections or sickle cell anemia. Gallstones can form when the gallbladder does not empty bile properly. Blood tests to check bilirubin, liver function test and pancreatic enzymes are often ordered. In cases of severe painful episodes, Cholecystectomy is performed.
People suffering from gall bladder disease should follow a low fat diet for healthy living. The bile from the gall bladder is necessary for proper digestion of fats. When there is no bile or not enough bile is produced by the gall bladder, fat from food cannot be properly digested and makes one feel ill or causes diarrhea. Hence a long-term dietary therapy is strongly recommended for people who have had gall bladder surgery. If your gall bladder is diseased, a low fat diet reduces stimulation of the organ and allows your gall bladder adequate rest. This eating plan also helps to prevent painful spasms of the bile duct.
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Bibliography / Reference
Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: January 20, 2020