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Haglund's Deformity

Haglund's deformity is a bony growth along the posterior lateral border of the calcaneus or the heel bone surrounded by a tender tissue. Haglund's deformity primarily springs from bone enlargement at the back of the heel bone in the area where Achilles tendon attaches to the bone. Hence it is also called pump bump. It is also called as 'retro ocular bursitis and 'calcaneal exotosis'. Bursitis is an inflammation of the sacs (bursae) that contain small amounts of lubricating fluid to help the joints move smoothly. The syndrome is usually found to occur in females in their teens who often use high heels causing irritation of the rigid heel counter of the shoe rubbing up and down on the back of the heel bone. However, the deformity can also occur among runners and athletes. Common symptoms include red painful area in the back of the heel and swollen area at the back of the heel bone. There is irritation in the Achilles tendon. Repeated blistering on the back of the heel leads to callous formation.


Haglund's deformity is identified by physical examination and x rays. The doctor correlates the physical symptoms of redness and pain in the area with findings in x-ray studies, bone scans and MRI. Haglund's deformity can be present at birth or may be acquired by injury over the patient's lifetime. Shoe gear is the primary reason for Haglund deformity. Haglund's deformity can be caused by bursitis or pressure against the shoe.


The treatment for Haglund's deformity depends upon the severity and cause of the disease. During the initial stages when the disease is mild, applying ice followed by moist heat and compression will help ease discomfort from pump dump. Changing the type of shoes can stop the injury and consequent redness and swelling from developing. The pain can also be alleviated to some extent by placing a heel lift inside the shoe so as to lift the Haglund bump above the part of the heel counter of the shoe that rubs it. A doctor may also prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce pain. Soaking the foot may also soothe the area. In mild cases, a doctor may also recommend padding of the area. Normally corticosteroid injections are given to relieve the pain but for long term complication this injection cannot be recommended as it can weaken and cause rupture to the Achilles tendon. In severe cases of deformity, surgery may be necessary to remove or reduce the bony growth.

Knee Tendonitis

Tendonitis is one of the most common injuries that affect the knee. In simple terms it means inflammation and/or rupture of the tendons of the knee. Knee Tendonitis is also called 'Jumper's knee' as it was first described in the takeoff leg of high jumpers. It occurs in dancers, runners and players and anyone who runs and jumps regularly suffer from it. Typical symptoms of knee Tendonitis or Tendinitis as this condition is also known as:


  • Knee tendonitis produces pain, tenderness and stiffness near/on the knee joints.
  • Worst pain is experienced when ascending or descending stairs or when getting up from a seated position.
  • Chronic pain is common due tendon and ligament weakness and cartilage deterioration.
  • Inflammation of the tendons in the knee occurs. The inflamed tendons are painful when moved or touched.
  • The tendon sheaths are visibly swollen. This may be due to accumulation of fluid and inflammation.

Causes
Knee tendonitis is caused by overuse, injury or due to aging.


  • A small tear or inflammation in the knee caused the pain in knee tendonitis.
  • Inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis can also cause knee tendonitis.
  • Popliteus Tendonitis is caused by excessive inward rolling of the feet. This is called 'pronation'. This occurs when excessive stress is put on the tendon, thereby causing a tear or inflammation in the tendon.
  • Pes anserine Tendonitis is characterized by inflammation of the medial knee. This often coexists with other knee disorders.
  • Semi membranous Tendonitis is characterized by posteromedical aspects of the knee and tenderness. Here resisted flexion and 'outward turned strain' occurs.

Treatment for Knee Tendonitis

Modern medicine


  • Orthopedic surgeons recommend conservative treatment for knee tendinitis. Physical therapy and injections are commonly administered.
  • Modern treatment regime includes rest, cryotherapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy and massage.
  • For the athlete who wants to improve his/her condition much faster, cortisone injections are given every one to two weeks.
  • Surgery for knee tendinitis is rare. However if the person develops a tear in the tendon,surgery is the only answer.

Natural treatment for knee tendinitis


  • Prolotherapy: In knee tendonitis that occurs in sports persons, the athlete is encouraged to perform exercises during the healing process. This natural medical treatment helps to strengthen structural weaknesses in the.
  • The MEAT treatment consists of tendon and strengthening of ligaments by movement, exercise, analgesics and treatment by herbal supplies. The approach here is to encourage the damaged tissues to heal as quickly as possible without decreasing the inflammation quickly with ice or anti inflammatory drugs.
  • A heat pad could be applied on the pain area for 15 -20 minutes to relieve pain.
  • Similarly cold therapy can also be resorted to.
  • Bracing is considered by sports persons to provide stability to the knee and thereby relieve pain by stimulating the nerve fibers which makes the wearer feels that the joint is more stable and secure. Football players, racers and skiers particularly benefit from such bracing.
  • Avoid activity that can cause pain.


Rheumatologist

Rheumatologist is a specialist who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and diseases of the joint, bones, and muscles. Rheumatologists complete medical school, complete another three years training in internal medicine and thereafter complete another three years in rheumatology training.



Modern techniques in the field of rheumatology

Treatment for rheumatology has seen a drastic change for the past few years, modern techniques used in the field of rheumatology include

  • Using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID).
  • Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMAR) are also prescribed along with NSAID to treat severe conditions of rheumatology.
  • Early treatment helps in pain management and easy recovery from pain.

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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: August 24, 2019