Haglund's deformity is a bony growth along the posterior lateral border of the calcaneus or the heel bone surrounded by a tender tissue. Haglund's deformity primarily springs from bone enlargement at the back of the heel bone in the area where Achilles tendon attaches to the bone. Hence it is also called pump bump. It is also called as 'retro ocular bursitis and 'calcaneal exotosis'. Bursitis is an inflammation of the sacs (bursae) that contain small amounts of lubricating fluid to help the joints move smoothly. The syndrome is usually found to occur in females in their teens who often use high heels causing irritation of the rigid heel counter of the shoe rubbing up and down on the back of the heel bone. However, the deformity can also occur among runners and athletes. Common symptoms include red painful area in the back of the heel and swollen area at the back of the heel bone. There is irritation in the Achilles tendon. Repeated blistering on the back of the heel leads to callous formation.
Haglund's deformity is identified by physical examination and x rays. The doctor correlates the physical symptoms of redness and pain in the area with findings in x-ray studies, bone scans and MRI. Haglund's deformity can be present at birth or may be acquired by injury over the patient's lifetime. Shoe gear is the primary reason for Haglund deformity. Haglund's deformity can be caused by bursitis or pressure against the shoe.
The treatment for Haglund's deformity depends upon the severity and cause of the disease. During the initial stages when the disease is mild, applying ice followed by moist heat and compression will help ease discomfort from pump dump. Changing the type of shoes can stop the injury and consequent redness and swelling from developing. The pain can also be alleviated to some extent by placing a heel lift inside the shoe so as to lift the Haglund bump above the part of the heel counter of the shoe that rubs it. A doctor may also prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce pain. Soaking the foot may also soothe the area. In mild cases, a doctor may also recommend padding of the area. Normally corticosteroid injections are given to relieve the pain but for long term complication this injection cannot be recommended as it can weaken and cause rupture to the Achilles tendon. In severe cases of deformity, surgery may be necessary to remove or reduce the bony growth.
Tendonitis is one of the most common injuries that affect the knee. In simple terms it means inflammation and/or rupture of the tendons of the knee. Knee Tendonitis is also called 'Jumper's knee' as it was first described in the takeoff leg of high jumpers. It occurs in dancers, runners and players and anyone who runs and jumps regularly suffer from it. Typical symptoms of knee Tendonitis or Tendinitis as this condition is also known as:
Knee tendonitis is caused by overuse, injury or due to aging.
Treatment for Knee Tendonitis
Natural treatment for knee tendinitis
Rheumatologist is a specialist who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and diseases of the joint, bones, and muscles. Rheumatologists complete medical school, complete another three years training in internal medicine and thereafter complete another three years in rheumatology training.
Modern techniques in the field of rheumatology
Treatment for rheumatology has seen a drastic change for the past few years, modern techniques used in the field of rheumatology include
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Diseases, Symptoms, Tests and Treatment arranged in alphabetical order:
Bibliography / Reference
Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: October 1, 2022