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Peripheral Vascular Disease

Peripheral Vascular Disease(PVD) or Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a condition where the arteries supplying blood to the limbs and internal organs get blocked as a consequence of atherosclerosis. Fatty deposits get built up in the arteries and reduce the flow of blood to the organs being supplied by the peripheral arteries. Atherosclerosis is by far the leading cause for Peripheral Vascular Disease. Diabetes is a condition that puts a person at high risk for PVD. Smoking and obesity increases the risk for Peripheral Vascular Disease. Persons who are obese and suffer from hypertension are at higher risk for Peripheral Vascular Disease. A sedentary lifestyle without any exercise should be avoided.


Intermittent Claudication is noticed in patients suffering from Peripheral Vascular Disease. Symptoms associated with Peripheral Vascular Disease include numbness or tingling in the limbs, sores that do not heal and pain in the buttocks. A patient suffering from Peripheral Vascular Disease notices changes in skin color and temperature. There may be a dull and cramping pain in the calf, thigh and hip muscles. Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) involves a ratio of the blood pressure in your ankle to the pressure in your arm. Angiogram is a dye test that reveals any possible blockage in the arteries. Ultrasound Doppler Test uses imaging to check for plaque build-up in the arteries. Duplex ultrasound helps in accurate detection of the size of the artery stenosis and the extent of blockage.


Medication is prescribed to eliminate the narrowing of the arteries thereby improving the heart efficiency. Anti-platelet or anti-clotting agents such as cilostazol and pentoxifylline or aspirin and Clopidogrel help in improving blood supply to the extremities. Heparin and Warfarin are anticoagulant drugs that can prevent blood clotting. Blood viscosity is controlled to improve blood flow. Drugs to control hypertension and cholesterol may also be prescribed. Bypass surgery allows a new blood route that circumvents the blocked areas of the peripheral arteries. Endarterectomy is a surgical procedure whereby a surgeon cleans out plaque buildup inside the artery of the affected leg or arm. Cryoplasty, a newer form of Angioplasty uses liquid nitrous oxide to open a narrowed artery and destroy the plaque within. Regular supervised exercise can reduce symptoms of intermittent Claudication.

Estradiol Test

Heart disease is gender-neutral and isn't anymore categorized as a man's disease. Continued research by the American Heart Association indicates that close to 43 million women in the U.S are affected by heart disease. 1 in 4 female deaths is due to heart disease. Diabetes, obesity, poor diet, physical inactivity and excessive consumption of alcohol are the key risk factors and 90% of women have one or more of these risk factors for developing heart disease.


Apart from these risk factors, in women who enter menopause, the tapering estrogen levels also increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Estradiol is a form of estrogen, a female sex hormone produced by the ovaries. In women, the ovaries and reproductive tissues are involved in making estrogen. In men, testosterone is transformed into estrodiol. Though estrogen is considered a hormone of importance only to women, research and tests indicate that the imbalance poses health issues for men too. Be it excess or lack of estrogen levels, the imbalance increases the risk of degenerative diseases.


  • Excess estrogen contributes to development of atherosclerosis.
  • Elevated estrogen levels double the risk of stroke and is a strong indicator of coronary artery disease.
  • Men with benign prostate enlargement or prostate cancer show high blood estrogen levels.
  • Lack of sufficient estrogen increases risk of osteoporosis and bone fracture.
  • Low estradiol levels are rated as high risk factor for cardiac patients, especially men.
  • Elevated estrogen levels doubles the possibility of stroke in senior men.
  • In elderly men, high level of estradiol is associated with peripheral artery disease.
  • Elevated estradiol level predisposes men over 50 years to development of an abnormal blood clots (thrombus).
  • In aging men, higher estradiol level is regarded as a risk factor for prostate cancer.

    Thus it is proved that estrogen, primarily categorized as a sex hormone does cast its effect on heart health. The estradiol or E2 test procedure is the same for men, women and adolescents. In adolescents, the test is to assess early puberty or Precocious puberty. The test results are useful for healthcare providers to assess and analyze women's health issues such as menstrual problems, ovarian tumors, gynecomastia, menopausal problems and breast cancer. In men, high levels of estradiol are associated with abdominal fat, enlargement of the prostate and cardiovascular risk. Low levels of estrogen are associated with osteoporosis.

    Too much of estrogen is estrogen dominance. Women who have opted for estrogen replacement may experience symptoms of estrogen dominance. In aging men, estrogen dominance can be natural phenomenon. Side effects of estrogen dominance are the same for men and women.


    • Headaches
    • Swelling in the breast area for women
    • Bloating
    • Decreased sex drive
    • Mood swings
    • Weight gain
    • Hair loss
    • Thyroid disease
    • Slowed metabolism
    • Excess facial hair in women
    • Fatigue
    • Memory loss
    • Difficulty sleeping
    • Susceptibility to allergies

    Besides, estrogen dominance accelerates the aging process. Men and women keen on avoiding estrogen dominance need to know the factors that contribute to estrogen dominance. Avoid those that contribute to increasing the level and bring healthy changes to live a healthy life.


    • Certain foods and items in our environment contribute to estrogen dominance. Estrogen-producing compounds are found in haircare products, sunscreen, pesticides, and car exhaust, cosmetics, moisturizers and carpeting.
    • Excess body fat helps the body in making more estrogen.
    • Highly processed foods, MSG, caffeine and beer are associated with high estrogen levels.
    • Compared to grass fed and pasture raised animals, estrogen levels are high in animals that are fed high carbohydrate feeds.
    • Unfermented soy products have high estrogen levels compared to fermented soy products.
    • Herbicides and pesticides contain a type of xenon-estrogen.
    • Broccoli, cabbage, kale, Brussels sprouts and cauliflower reduce estrogen in the body.
    • Leafy vegetable like spinach, parsley, dandelions, Swiss chard and celery can have a lowering effect in the body.


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    Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: August 24, 2019