High levels of neutrophil in the blood results in neutrophilia; neutrophils are White Blood Cells or WBC that are assigned the task of killing/fighting off foreign matter like fungi and bacteria in the body. They are an important part of the body's defense force. An adequate amount of production and distribution of neutrophils is very important. However during an infection in the body, an elevated level of neutrophils can be found, with equal numbers in marginal and circulating pool.
The site of infection generates chemotactic agents and attracts neutrophils to the affected part. During recovery the flow of cells decreases from the marrow and this in turn decreases the amount of neutrophils. Neutrophilia is the most common form of leukocytosis - a condition wherein the blood has an increased number of leukocytes. When the cells shift from the marginal to circulating pool without an increase in the total blood granulocyte pool or if there is an increase in size of the TGBP, it could result in Neutrophilia.
Women in their childbearing age have a higher neutrophil count when compared to men. Pregnancy also leads to high neutrophil count and this may tend to increase during childbirth.
True Neutrophilia: True Neutrophilia occurs in most cases of infection and total blood granulocyte pool, the TGBP, may increase 5-6 times the normal level. At the onset of the infection, Neutrophilia count decreases and then it rises to very high levels.
Shift Neutrophilia: Shift Neutrophilia as the name indicates is transient (e.g. during heavy exercise) and may occur in association to other conditions. The change in numbers may last only for a few minutes. There is no change in the inflow of neutrophils from the bone marrow.
Causes for Neutrophilia
Neutrophilia is caused due to increase in bone marrow output or redistribution of white cells. Though there are numerous possibilities for an elevated level of neutrophils in the blood, the most common causes include:
Most often neutrophilia is a reactive phenomenon and can be diagnosed through blood tests. A physical examination is done and the medical history of the patient is studied. A complete blood count investigation and a series of blood tests are ordered for. In a few cases bone marrow aspiration is ordered for. The commons symptoms reported include decreased body temperature or hypothermia, dyspnea (labored breathing) or tachypnea (rapid breathing) and sometimes bleeding.
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Bibliography / Reference
Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: September 30, 2023