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Pyogenic Granuloma

Pyogenic granulomas are common skin lesions that appear as tiny red bumps. These lesions have moist, shiny and smooth surface and are prone to bleeding quite often. They tend to bleed frequently as they contain large number of blood vessels at the site. These bumps are usually attached to the skin with stalk. The diameter of the stalk always measures lesser compared to the tumor. Pyogenic granulomas most often occur in children and young adults. It is also common in pregnant women and hormonal changes that take place during pregnancy is said to be the reason for developing Pyogenic granulomas during such period.


Causes and Symptoms

The exact cause for pyogenic granuloma is not known. However it normally occurs at the site of injured or damaged skin. This condition is neither hereditary nor is it contagious.


  • A small red raised bump on the skin that bleeds frequently.
  • They are benign and tend to erupt and grow at a rapid pace.
  • Usually occurs on hands, arms, and face. In rare cases, they can grow on the cornea of the eye. However pregnant women often develop them on the oral mucosa.
  • The lesion can measure from few millimeters to several centimeters and there could be single lesion or tiny multiple bumps clustered around the same area.

Pyogenic granulomas is normally diagnosed on mere observation during the clinical examination. A biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis.


Treatment

Pyogenic granulomas may shrink, dry up and fall off on their own over a period of time. Yet the condition most often requires medical attention and treatment much before that; as the wait may be painful and distressing. Pregnant women need not opt for any treatment as the lesions disappear after delivery. In normal cases the following methods are usually followed to treat Pyogenic granulomas.

Curettage: Curettage is always known to be the first line treatment for Pyogenic granulomas. Curettage involves scraping of the lesion with a curette, a spoon like instrument with sharp edges. Once the lesion is removed, Electro cauterization is performed to avoid regrowth and prevent infection.

Cryotherapy: Cryotherapy involves freezing the lesion using liquid nitrogen. This method is effective in treating small lesions. Cryotherapy does not leave a deep scar. However it may change the color of the skin at the site.

Silver nitrate: Cauterization using silver nitrate is also a commonly followed method in treating Pyogenic granulomas.

Laser surgery: Laser treatment has been gaining popularity in treating Pyogenic granulomas. It is an outpatient procedure and results in better cosmetic appearance with little or no scarring.

Excision: There are high chances of recurrence even after timely treatment in Pyogenic granuloma. In such cases, the most effective method of treatment is to completely remove affected area through surgical excision and then close it with sutures.


Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is a rare autoimmune disease where the body's own tissues are attacked leading to small lumps (granulomas). It can affect the lungs, heart, brain, skin and nervous system, eyes and other organs. Sarcoidosis usually affects the lungs or lymph nodes. The skin, liver and eyes are also often affected. Granulomas are small scars on the affected organs. These granulomas are very small and are visible only under a microscope. Tiny granulomas clump together and cause a big scar. Scarring affects the normal functioning of the affected organ. This disease has a tendency to affect more than one organ at a time. In its active phase, sarcoidosis manifests as scar tissues on the affected organs. When sarcoidosis is in a non-active phase, the granulomas do not grow. Sarcoidosis cases are more pronounced among African -Americans. The highest occurrences of Sarcoidosis are noticed among Scandinavians and red-haired Irish women. Sarcoidosis was originally called Hutchinson's disease or Boeck's disease.


Sarcoidosis is treated according to its extent and severity. Symptoms of sarcoidosis include arthritis in the ankles and disturbed heart rhythms. In most cases of mild sarcoidosis, the inflammation is resolved on its own. In severe cases, the damage is permanent. When vital organs are affected by sarcoidosis, it results in death. In many cases, Sarcoidosis does not manifest in any symptoms. A patient suffering from sarcoidosis notices skin and lung problems, weight loss and fatigue. There may be eye problems and arthritis. Patients suffering from this condition may notice shortness of breath and prolonged cough. Skin lesions may appear. Sarcoidosis is noticed during chest x-rays, blood tests and pulmonary function tests. Biopsies of skin lesions or lymph nodes can help in diagnosing sarcoidosis. Oral steroids such as prednisone or prednisolone are used in the treatment of sarcoidosis. Topical creams or ointments are used to treat sarcoidosis of the skin or eyes.


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Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: June 24, 2019