Vitamin B12 or cobalamin helps to make red blood cells and is important for brain and nerve cell functions. Vitamin B12 is effective in DNA synthesis, fatty acid synthesis and cell metabolism. Vitamin B 12 is found naturally in fish, red meat, poultry, milk, cheese, and eggs and also breakfast cereals. B12 deficiency leads to pernicious anemia - which manifests in the form of weakness, sore tongue, general apathy, back pain and tingling in the extremities. Vitamin B12 helps maintain a healthy digestive system, healthy skin and hair and protect against high blood pressure and heart disease. Vitamin B 12 helps protect against breast cancer, colon cancer and prostate cancer.
RDA - Recommended Daily Allowance:
Adults - Men: 2.4 mcg
Adults - Women: 2.4 mcg
Pregnant Women: 2.6 mcg
Breast feeding Women: 2.8 mcg
Vitamin B12 is generally well tolerated.
Homocysteine Blood Test
Homocysteine blood test measures the amount of amino acid homocysteine in the blood. High level of homocysteine is associated with low level of vitamin B6/ B12, and folate. This blood test helps us to identify the deficiency and get treated accordingly. The results of the blood test are generally ready within 24 to 72 hours. Homocysteine is measured in micromoles per liter of blood.
Homocysteine (HCY) is considered as the main biochemical marker of several primary and secondary disorders of methionine metabolism. Methionine is one of the essential Amino acids and sweeps the blood stream of heavy metals. It plays a major role in protecting the liver. Poor Methionine Metabolism can result in Homocysteinemia, Cystathionine Synthase (CS) deficiency (Homocystinuria) and Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency.
Homocysteine is a non protein amino acid that is produced by the body and is present in small levels in the blood. Amino acids are the building blocks of all proteins in the body. In our body, vitamins B6, B12 and folate convert homocysteine into other usable substances. A deficiency in these vitamins may cause an elevated level of homocysteine. Elevated levels in infants can prove fatal as the infant may be highly prone to develop heart or blood vessel diseases at an early age.
Reference Level of Homocysteine : Less than or equivalent to : 13 µmol/L (micromoles per liter)
Elevated levels of homocysteine could be due to genetic causes (a rare disorder called Homocystinuria that is caused by a dysfunctional enzyme that is essential for metabolism in the body) or due to other causes like atherosclerosis.
In addition to be the important marker for inherited disorders of methionine metabolism, the total homocysteine (HCY) level can accurately predict conditions such as cardiovascular disease (atherosclerosis, thromboembolism). Besides it can also indicate acquired folate or cobalamin deficiency - a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects.
Homocysteine is measured using a simple blood test. This blood test is done to identify
What causes high/low homocysteine value in blood ?
High values in blood may be caused by:
How is high level of homocysteine harmful ?
Higher levels of homocysteine can point to an underlying Cardiovascular disease or a Neuro vascular disease.
Elevated levels of homocysteine can:
Damage artery lining: Arteries tend to become damaged and begin to clog, thicken and become inflexible thus leading to atherosclerosis.
Create blood clots: Homocysteine can elevate the cholesterol levels thus clogging the arteries and thickening them thus leading to atherosclerosis. Blood clots form easily thus leading to heart attack.
Strokes: Elevated level of homocysteine can affect the arteries leading to and from the brain thereby causing a blood clot or a rupture in the blood vessel. This in turn can cut off/reduce the oxygen supply to the brain thereby starving the brain cells of nutrition and oxygen thus leading to a stroke.
Osteoporosis: Density of the bone mass reduces thus leading to fragile and weakened bones.
Cause infertility: Women with high level of homocysteine find it difficult to conceive and are at the risk of repeated miscarriages.
Cause dementia and Alzheimer's: Old age can contribute to high levels of homocysteine thus damaging the brain cells. Over time memory is lost thus killing more and more cells.
Homocysteine level in the blood can be lowered by:
Who should get this test done?
People who have a history of heart diseases and are at a high risk for heart disease should get their homocysteine level checked. People who are at risk for stroke also need to get this check done.
Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamins and minerals boost the immune system of the individual, and they support normal growth and development of the body. For instance, carrot contains beta carotene and other carotenoids, which are not only good for eyes but also are antioxidants. Beta carotene is a precursor of Vitamin A and is part of the Provitamin A Carotenoids. The body converts carotenoids into Vitamin A, which in turn prevents possible eye problems. Vitamins fall under two categories:
Fat soluble vitamins - which dissolve in fat and can be stored in the body. Fat soluble vitamins are A, D, E and K.
Water soluble vitamins - which need to dissolve in water before your body can absorb them. Water soluble vitamins are Vitamin C and the B complex vitamins such as Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, niacin, riboflavin and folate.
While vitamins are organic substances, minerals are inorganic and they come from the soil and water and are absorbed by plants or eaten by animals. The body needs largest amounts of some minerals such as calcium, to stay healthy. Other minerals such as chromium, copper, iodine, selenium and zinc are termed trace minerals as the body needs very small amounts of them each day.
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Diseases, Symptoms, Tests and Treatment arranged in alphabetical order:
Bibliography / Reference
Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: October 19, 2019