TargetWoman Condensed Health Information



List of general Antibiotics

Antibiotics are primarily used to treat bacterial infections. They may have secondary uses - treatment of the Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) secretion with Declomycin. Some antibiotics are also used to prevent infection (antibiotic prophylaxis) before any surgery or in the case of weakened immune systems. There was a study which indicated that about 300 million prescriptions for antibiotics are issued every year in the US alone and the wide spread use or abuse of the antibiotics is a serious issue. For example, an antibiotic can seriously deplete the normal intestinal micro flora which can result in vaginal yeast infection in susceptible women. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics can bring about increased incidences of Streptococcal disease in children apart from enhanced drug resistance.



Antibiotics Families : Penicillins | Cephalosporins | Macrolides | Quinolones | Aminoglycosides | Tetracyclines | Sulfonamides | Other Antibiotics : Antibiotic Side Effects | Antibiotic Interactions | Antibiotics with Alcohol

Antibiotics Classification: Antibiotics are classified under many categories. Commonly they are grouped based on chemical structure and Antibiotics within the same class exhibit similar kind of effectiveness, allergic potential and toxicity. The exhaustive list below also contains drug allergy or other reactions possible for susceptible individuals as appropriate under each class.


Other types of classification:
Bacterial Spectrum: Broad Spectrum Antibiotics are capable of targeting many types of bacteria while narrow spectrum antibiotics target specifically a single class of bacteria. It is generally preferable to use a specific antibiotic for the specific class of bacteria.

Type of Activity: Bactericidal drugs are intended to kill bacteria while bacteriostatic drugs are intended to inhibit the growth of bacteria.


Broad Spectrum Antibiotics: According to a Swiss Study, this class of Antibiotics which act against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria is prone to misuse. Broad Spectrum Antibiotics - specifically the antipseudomonal agents (i.e. cefepime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, piperacil lin/tazobactam) plus trovafloxacin were found to be misused.


The following list shows the generic names of common antibiotics prescribed and available under various trade names in the US. We have broadly classified them under the common 'family' names.

Broad Spectrum Penicillins / Amoxicillin : Penicillin Family Antibiotics List

Penicillins - one of the oldest type of broad spectrum antibiotics, share common chemical structure with Cephalopsorins. They are classified as Beta-lactam antibiotics. Aminopenicillins such as Ampicillin and Amoxicillin have extended spectrum of action. Extended Spectrum Penicillins are effective against a broad range of bacteria including Pseudomonas Aeruginosa which affect patients with weakened immune systems.


The Penicillin family of antibiotics includes various types of antibiotics that share a similar chemical structure and mechanism of action. Here is a list of some well-known antibiotics within the Penicillin family:

  • Penicillin G (Benzylpenicillin) : One of the earliest and most commonly used antibiotics, effective against many bacterial infections.
  • Penicillin V (Phenoxymethylpenicillin) : Often used to treat streptococcal infections, especially those involving the throat.
  • Amoxicillin : A widely prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat a range of bacterial infections.
  • Ampicillin : Similar to amoxicillin but with a broader spectrum of activity, effective against both Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria.
  • Oxacillin : A penicillinase-resistant penicillin used to treat infections caused by penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
  • Methicillin : Another penicillinase-resistant penicillin used against penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, though it's not commonly used due to side effects.
  • Piperacillin : An extended-spectrum penicillin often used in hospitals for severe infections.
  • Ticarcillin : Another extended-spectrum penicillin used for treating various infections, especially those involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  • Carbenicillin : Effective against Gram-negative bacteria, especially Pseudomonas species.

  • Augmentin (Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid) : A combination antibiotic that includes amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, used to treat a broader range of infections.

    Dosage for Augmentin: For Adults and Children:
    The usual dose of Augmentin is 250 mg/125 mg to 875 mg/125 mg twice a day, depending on the severity of the infection. The tablet strength is expressed as the amount of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in milligrams.


    For Children (Dosage can vary based on weight):
    The pediatric dose is typically calculated based on the child's weight and is expressed as milligrams of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid per kilogram (mg/kg) of body weight. The dose is usually divided into two or three equal doses spread throughout the day.


  • Unasyn (Ampicillin/Sulbactam) : Similar to Augmentin, this combination includes ampicillin and sulbactam, extending its activity against beta-lactamase-producing bacteria.

Allergic reactions are common with Penicillins for susceptible individuals. Cephalosporins can cause seizures or affect the blood clotting time for susceptible patients.


  • Ampicillin
  • Bacampicillin
  • Carbenicillin Indanyl
  • Mezlocillin
  • Piperacillin
  • Ticarcillin


Penicillins and Beta Lactamase Inhibitors


  • Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid
  • Ampicillin-Sulbactam
  • Benzylpenicillin
  • Cloxacillin
  • Dicloxacillin
  • Methicillin
  • Oxacillin
  • Penicillin G
  • Penicillin V
  • Piperacillin Tazobactam
  • Ticarcillin Clavulanic Acid
  • Nafcillin
  • Procaine Penicillin - Injectable form of penicillin that contains an anesthetic to reduce the pain of the injection. Procaine Penicillin dosage is usually between 600000 to 1 million units per day Intramuscular (IM) for about 10 days for most Upper respiratory tract infection and other simpler bacterial infections. P Penicillin must never be administered intravenously as it can result in anaphylactic shock.


Cephalosporins

Cephalosporins, one of the largest classes of Antibiotics are used to treat a long list of bacterial infections from around the year 1950. The latest in this class, Ceftaroline is a new fifth generation Cephalosporin - a broad spectrum Antibiotics that shows promise against Gram + bacteria including Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA),Vancomycin Intermediate S.Aureus (VISA), Vancomycin Resistant S.Aureus (VRSA)and Heteroresistant VISA (hVISA).


  • Cephalosporin I Generation Antibiotics
  • Cefadroxil
  • Cefazolin
  • Cephalexin
  • Cephalothin
  • Cephapirin
  • Cephradine


Cephalosporin II Generation Antibiotics


  • Cefaclor
  • Cefamandol
  • Cefonicid
  • Cefotetan
  • Cefoxitin
  • Cefprozil
  • Ceftmetazole
  • Cefuroxime
  • Loracarbef


Cephalosporin III Generation Antibiotics


  • Cefdinir
  • Ceftibuten
  • Cefoperazone
  • Cefixime
  • Cefotaxime
  • Cefpodoxime proxetil
  • Ceftazidime
  • Ceftizoxime
  • Ceftriaxone


Cephalosporin IV Generation Antibiotics


  • Cefepime
  • Cefluprenam
  • Cefozopran
  • Cefpirome
  • Cefquinome

Fourth generation Cephalosporin antibiotics are effective in the treatment of Encephalitis and Meningitis as they cross the blood-brain barrier.


Cephalosporin V Generation Antibioticsor New Generation Cephalosporins - NGCs


  • Ceftolozane
  • Ceftaroline
  • Ceftobiprole

The New Generation Cephalosporins show considerable efficacy against a host of bacteria - from MRSA to respiratory pathogens like Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Haemophilus Influenzae and Moraxella Catarrhalis.
β lactam antibacterial resistance: These fifth generation Cephalosporins inhibit the cell wall synthesis of Penicillin Binding Proteins (PBPs). For example, Ceftaroline's anti MRSA efficacy stems from its high affinity for the MRSA associated (Penicillin Binding Proteins)PBP2a. It may have affinity greater than 256 times over other β lactams.


Ceftaroline is effective against the following:

Gram Positive Bacteria which cause skin infections:
Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) and resistant isolates
Streptococcus Pyogenes
Streptococcus Agalactiae

Gram Positive Bacteria which cause Community Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia (CABP):
Streptococcus Pneumoniae
Staphylococcus aureus(methicillin susceptible isolates)

Gram Negative Bacteria:
Klebsiella Pneumoniae
Klebsiella Oxytoca
Escherichia Coli
Haemophilus Iinfluenzae
Escherichia Coli


Macrolides and Lincosamines

Macrolide Antibiotics have macrocyclic lactone chemical structure. Erythromycin and the newer antibiotics belonging to this broad spectrum class - Azithromycin and Clarithromycin are widely used for their higher level of lung penetration. Erythromycin may rarely result in Myasthenia gravis while Azithromycin may rarely result in Angioedema (Patches of swelling of the skin, mucus membranes and internal organs), Anaphylaxis (hypersensitive reaction due to contact through allergens) or other allergic reactions.


  • Azithromycin
  • Clarithromycin
  • Clindamycin
  • Dirithromycin
  • Erythromycin
  • Lincomycin
  • Troleandomycin


Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones

Fluoroquinolones are synthetically manufactured broad spectrum Antibiotics. Lomefloxacin is reported to cause increased photosensitivity and in some cases may result in convulsion.


  • Cinoxacin
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Enoxacin
  • Gatifloxacin
  • Grepafloxacin
  • Levofloxacin
  • Lomefloxacin
  • Moxifloxacin
  • Nalidixic acid
  • Norfloxacin
  • Ofloxacin
  • Sparfloxacin
  • Trovafloxacin
  • Oxolinic acid
  • Gemifloxacin
  • Perfloxacin


Beta lactam Antibiotics: Carbepenems

Imipenem-Cilastatin
Meropenem


Monobactams
Aztreonam



List of Antibiotics Antibiotics list

Aminoglycosides : These antibiotics are specifically used to target aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria. Generally useful against Pseudomonos, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter amongst others. Streptomycin is effective to control tuberculosis causing mycobacteria. Antibiotic treatment with Aminoglycosides often involves the use of another antibiotics for overall better synergetic effect.


  • Amikacin
  • Gentamicin
  • Kanamycin
  • Neomycin
  • Netilmicin
  • Streptomycin
  • Capreomycin Sulfate
  • Tobramycin
  • Paromomycin


Details on Specific Antibiotic Therapy

Gentamicin: Gentamicin is the antibiotic of choice for the treatment of some kind of blood infections caused by gram negative bacilli like the following:

  • Citrobacter freundii
  • Acinetobacter species
  • Enterobacter species
  • Escherichia coli
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • Proteus mirabilis
  • Providencia stuartii
  • Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
  • Serratia species

Gentamicin is often used along with beta-lactam antibiotics for better efficiency.

Conventional Dosage: It should be noted that a typical dosage of Gentamicin is usually given 2 to 3 times a day by IV (intravenous) or IM (intramuscular) injections to achieve peak blood concentration between 5.0 μg/mL and 12.0 μg/ml. The dosage mentioned here depends on the type of infection and on other factors like the patient's renal function. Gentamicin is sometimes given at a higher dose than the suggested common dosage - 5-7mg/kg of body weight once per day - termed as pulse dosing for patients with good tolerance and good renal function. Risk of excessive dosage in the case of Gentamicin is Ototoxicity (damage to the inner ear) and Nephrotoxicity (damage to kidneys).

Glycopeptides
Teicoplanin
Vancomycin



Tetracyclines


  • Demeclocycline
  • Doxycycline
  • Methacycline
  • Minocycline
  • Oxytetracycline
  • Tetracycline
  • Chlortetracycline

Tetracyclines are not normally prescribed for children under the age of 8 due to the permanent tooth discoloration these drugs cause.


Sulfonamides


  • Mafenide
  • Silver Sulfadiazine
  • Sulfacetamide
  • Sulfadiazine
  • Sulfamethoxazole
  • Sulfasalazine
  • Sulfisoxazole
  • Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole
  • Sulfamethizole


Rifampin

Rifabutin
Rifampin also known as Rifampicin (Rifadin)
Rifapentine


Oxazolidonones

Linezolid
Streptogramins
Quinopristin Dalfopristin


Other Antibiotics


Topical Antibiotics

Bacitracin: Bacitracin belongs to a class of antibiotics known as polypeptides. Bacitracin is effective against a variety of bacteria, particularly Gram-positive bacteria.
Mechanism of Action:
Bacitracin works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form cell walls. Specifically, it inhibits the formation of peptidoglycan, an essential component of bacterial cell walls. Without a properly formed cell wall, bacteria are unable to maintain their structural integrity and eventually die.

Uses:
Skin Infections : Bacitracin is commonly used as a topical antibiotic ointment or cream to treat minor skin infections such as cuts, scrapes, and minor burns. It helps prevent bacterial growth in the affected area, allowing the body to heal more effectively. Eye Infections : Bacitracin ointment is also used in the treatment of certain eye infections, such as bacterial conjunctivitis (pink eye). It is applied to the inner eyelid to help fight the infection. Other Infections : Bacitracin can be used in other types of infections, such as those affecting the respiratory tract or urinary tract, but it is less commonly used for these purposes compared to other antibiotics.

Administration:
Topical : Bacitracin is most commonly available as a topical ointment or cream. It should be applied directly to the affected area of the skin. Before application, the area should be cleaned and dried thoroughly. Ophthalmic : Bacitracin ointment for the eyes should be applied as directed by a healthcare professional. It is usually applied to the inner eyelid several times a day, depending on the severity of the infection. Side Effects : Bacitracin is generally considered safe when used topically or as directed. However, like any medication, it can cause side effects in some individuals. Common side effects include:

Skin irritation, redness, or itching at the application site
Allergic reactions (rare but possible)
Contact dermatitis (inflammation of the skin due to an allergic reaction or irritation)
Precautions and Considerations :

Bacitracin is for external use only and should not be ingested.
It should not be used on deep cuts, puncture wounds, animal bites, or serious burns without consulting a healthcare professional.
Individuals with known allergies to bacitracin or any component of the medication should avoid its use.
Pregnant or breastfeeding women should consult with a healthcare professional before using bacitracin.


Chloramphenicol : Chloramphenicol is another strong broad spectrum antibiotic. Chloramphenicol may be the antibiotic of choice for the following conditions :
Bacterial meningitis: Chloramphenicol can be used to treat bacterial meningitis, which is an infection of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Typhoid fever: Chloramphenicol can be used to treat typhoid fever, which is a bacterial infection that can cause high fever, headache, and gastrointestinal symptoms.
Rickettsial infections: Chloramphenicol can be used to treat rickettsial infections, which are bacterial infections that are spread by ticks, lice, fleas, and other insects.
Bacterial conjunctivitis: Chloramphenicol can be used to treat bacterial conjunctivitis, which is an infection of the eye that can cause redness, discharge, and irritation.
The recommended dosage of Chloramphenicol will depend on the specific condition being treated, the age and weight of the patient and other individual factors.

Dosage:
For bacterial meningitis in children: The recommended dosage is 50-100 mg/kg/day, given in 4 divided doses.
For typhoid fever: The recommended dosage is 50-75 mg/kg/day, given in 4 divided doses for 14 days.
For bacterial conjunctivitis: The recommended dosage is 1-2 drops of a 0.5% ophthalmic solution in the affected eye(s) every 2-4 hours.
For acne: The recommended dosage is 50-100 mg orally, 2-4 times daily, for several weeks.

Caution: Some of the common side effects of Chloramphenicol include - Nausea, vomiting, Diarrhea, Headache, Dizziness, Rash, Blood disorders, such as anemia or low white blood cell count. In rare cases, Chloramphenicol can also cause serious side effects, such as aplastic anemia, which is a condition where the bone marrow stops producing new blood cells.


  • Fosfomycin, Fosfomycin Tromethamine
  • Isoniazid
  • Methenamine
  • Metronidazol
  • Mupirocin
  • Nitrofurantoin
  • Nitrofurazone
  • Novobiocin
  • Polymyxin
  • Spectinomycin
  • Trimethoprim
  • Colistin
  • Colistimethate
  • Cycloserine
  • Capreomycin
  • Ethionamide
  • Pyrazinamide
  • Para-aminosalicyclic acid
  • Erythromycin ethylsuccinate

    Topical Antibiotics: Many Antibiotics are available for external application on the skin which include:

    Erythromycin
    Clindamycin
    Tetracycline
    Meclocycline
    Sodium sulfacetamide

    Topical medications that act as Comedolytics as well as antibiotics:

    Benzoyl peroxide
    Azelaic acid
    Benzoyl peroxide


    Recommended Dosage : Antibiotics dosage is based on many factors:

    • Target Pathogen
    • Choice of Drug
    • Area of Infection
    • Severity of infection
    • Pertinent Patient conditions such as age, renal function
    • Route of administration

    Many antibiotics can be administered parenterally - either through Intravenous (IV) or Intra muscular (IM) injections.

    You may find some typical usage instructions, dosage, contra indications and side effects - if any for some of the antibiotics listed above in these pages.


    Antibiotics for Anaerobic infections

    Anaerobes - the kind of bacteria which can not grow in the presence of oxygen, can infect deep wounds and internal organs - sometimes resulting in gangrene, botulism, tetanus and almost all dental infections.
    Some common Anaerobic infections

    • Pneumonia, Empyema, Bronchiectasis
    • Appendicitis, Peritonitis
    • Endometritis, Pelvic abscesses
    • Necrotizing Fascitis (destructive infection of the deep skin), Bacteremia (presence of Anaerobic bacteria in the blood)

    Many antibiotics do not inhibit/control Anaerobes. But Chloramphenicol, Imipenem, Metronidazole, Clindamycin and Cefoxitin are effective against these bacteria.


    New Antibiotics in pipeline: Pseudouridimycin (PUM) is a promising new Antibiotic which inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP). What is more, PUM in the research shows its ability to act against drug resistant bacterial pathogens.

    Ornidazole is a nitroimidazole derivative and is an antimicrobial agent used in the treatment of various infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. It is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that exhibits activity against a wide range of anaerobic bacteria, including Bacteroides, Clostridium, and Fusobacterium species, as well as some protozoa such as Trichomonas vaginalis and Entamoeba histolytica.
    Dosage:
    Ornidazole is available in the form of oral tablets, capsules, and injections for intravenous use. The dosage and duration of treatment depend on the severity of the infection, the patient's age, and the patient's medical history. The usual adult dose for the treatment of anaerobic infections is 500-1000 mg, twice daily for 5-10 days. For the treatment of amoebic infections, the recommended dose is 1500 mg as a single daily dose for three days.

    Caveats:
    Like all antibiotics, Ornidazole has some caveats and should be used with caution in certain situations. Some of the caveats include:

    1. Hypersensitivity: Ornidazole should not be used in patients who are allergic to nitroimidazole compounds.
    2. Pregnancy and lactation: Ornidazole should be used with caution in pregnant and lactating women. It is not recommended for use during the first trimester of pregnancy unless the benefits outweigh the risks.
    3. Neurological disorders: Ornidazole may cause neurological side effects such as dizziness, headache, and seizures. It should be used with caution in patients with a history of neurological disorders.
    4. Blood disorders: Ornidazole may cause blood disorders such as leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and agranulocytosis. It should be used with caution in patients with a history of blood disorders.
    5. Alcohol consumption: Ornidazole, as it belongs to the nitroimidazole group, should not be used in combination with alcohol as it may cause a disulfiram-like reaction.

    Antibiotic Interactions

    The most common side effects of antibiotics are diarrhea, feeling sick and vomiting. Some antibiotics are Teratogens (that can affect the fetus causing birth defects). Some families of antibiotics may have adverse effects on some region : Tetracycline affects bone growth and discolors the teeth. Antibiotics can also induce Dysbiosis (Dysbacteriosis or the condition where the natural flora of the gut are in a state of imbalance).

    Some cases of Antibiotics associated enterocolitis can occur after a prolonged treatment with many antibiotics - especially from Clindamycin, Ampicillin, Amoxicillin or any in the Cephalosporin class. The Colitis triggered by the Antibiotics is an inflammation of the intestines caused by the toxins released due to the proliferation of the normally harmless bacterium Clostridium Difficile. In half the cases of antibiotics associated Colitis, it can take the form of a severe Colitis known as Pseudomembranous Enterocolitis where Pseudo membranes (membrane like collections of WBC, mucus and protein) are excreted. Initial symptoms include lower abdominal cramps and diarrhea which can progress to nausea, vomiting, general fatigue, Abdominal pain and very high fever. In severe form, it can cause dehydration, mineral imbalance, low blood pressure, edema in deep skin, toxic megacolon (enlargement of the large intestine) or perforation of the large intestine. This is the reason why additional antibiotics like Vancomycin or Metronidazole are prescribed to control the bacteria - Clostridium Difficile. Additional supplements containing Lactobacillus Acidophilus - the good bacteria that help to reestablish themselves in the intestines - can help.


    Antibiotics Toxicity: Some persons develop an allergic reaction to antibiotics such as penicillin and cephalosporin. Others feel sick and experience loss of appetite and bloating and indigestion. Swelling of face and tongue, breathing difficulty and rashes cam become quite serious leading to a life-threatening allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis. Typical side effects of some drugs are listed below:


    Penicillin: Penicillins are drugs of choice for many aerobic gram positive infections. Some varieties of penicillin such as ampicillin have effect on gram negative organisms as well. Amino penicillins are administered often as they are broad spectrum antibiotics. Penicillin are often associated with side effects such as allergy, rash, neuro toxicity which includes gangrene and necrosis.

    Cephalosporins: Some of the second and third generation cephalosporins are used as broad spectrum antibiotics for the treatment of gram positive and gram negative infections. The drugs administered are cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and cefpirome. In many cases cephalosporins induce fever along with thrombocytopenia. Some cephalosporins are not recommended as they are nephrotoxic and have low renal clearance rates.

    Aminoglycosides: Aminoglycosides are widely recommended for gram positive and gram-negative infections of the respiratory and urinary tract. Aminoglycosides are administered in many post-operative infections and hospital acquired infections. These drugs are contraindicated during pregnancy as they induce ototoxicity and nephro toxicity. Co-administration of other drugs like diuretics, muscle relaxants, cyclosporin or antifungals can exacerbate toxicities.

    Macrolides: Macrolides are a group of broad spectrum antibiotics administered for various infective conditions pertaining to upper respiratory tract and also urinary tract. The drug Azithromycin is safe and widely recommended in pregnancy associated urinary infections. Neuromuscular blockage and rashes have been reported in some cases as side effects of macrolides. The antibiotic Azithromycin from the class of antibiotics - macrolids can cause potentially fatal irregular heart rhythm for some patients as per the recent FDA warning. The risk factor is for those with low levels of Potassium/ Magnesium or those with slower than normal heart rate or it can interfere with some medications to control cardiac arrhythmia or those suffering from the condition - Torsades de pointes , a rare form of Arrhythmia or Cardiac Dysrhythmia (refers to an abnormal rhythm in the heart which results in irregular contraction). However FDA noted that other than Macrolides class of antibiotics, flouroquinolones can also cause QT prolongation for some susceptible patients.

    Fluoroquinolones: Fluoroquinolones can induce side effects other than the common ones. These include headache, confusion, dizziness and photo toxicity. Convulsions are noticed in a few cases.


    Rifampin which also comes under the name of Rifampicin (Rifadin) is a powerful antibacterial drug prescribed for leprosy, meningitis and tuberculosis. In many cases, this drug is prescribed over a long period and can cause hepatotoxicity if not adequately monitored. This class of drugs imparts red/orange tinge to body fluids. It may potentiate or antagonize the actions of some drugs - thus requiring extreme caution in prescribing other drugs. Even some oral contraceptives may be rendered ineffective when combined with Rifamycin class of antibiotics.


    Antibiotic Side Effects

    Drug interactions are also not uncommon. Antibiotics can react with herbal or alternate remedies. Some drug combinations are contraindicated, like in the case of penicillin and birth control pills. Penicillin and methotrexate, used in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases is another combination that can produce serious side effects. Cephalosporins are contraindicated with blood thinners. Tetracyclines are contraindicated with retinoids (Vitamin A belongs to this group), blood thinning medications, diuretics, antacids, sucralfate, colestyramine, ergotamine, methysergide and insulin.


    Antibiotic Resistance

    Micro organisms evolve resistance to Antibiotics over a period of time resulting in drug resistance. This may occur due to abuse of Antibiotics by the patients or unwarranted prescription of broad spectrum antibiotics or the permeation of antibiotics through consumption of livestock fed with antibiotics for growth promotion or other non therapeutic reasons.


    Drug resistance has started soon after the discovery of Penicillin by Sir. Alexander Fleming in 1929. Certain strains of staphylococci developed resistance to Penicillin after some time. Comparatively newer antibiotics introduced in the middle of 20th century barely managed to keep the race against bacteria under control. As the development of antibiotics is becoming more expensive and not remunerative enough for the drug companies, the pace of development of new antibiotics has drastically come down in the recent times.


    Usage of Antibiotics should be restricted to therapeutic use alone. Indiscriminate usage of antibiotics can only enhance the drug resistant strains of bacteria which will affect the choice of treatment. It has been noted that about 70 % of bacterial infections in hospitals are resistant to at least one of the antibiotics commonly used to treat such infections.


    Resistance to the treatment of life threatening infections caused by a common intestinal bacteria, Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Carbapenem antibiotics has spread to all parts of the world. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major cause of hospital acquired infections such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound or surgical site infections and meningitis. In many countries, because of drug resistance, Carbapenem antibiotics would not work in more than half of patients treated.

    Staphylococcus aureus or commonly called as Staph aureus or MRSA is one of the pathogens which can infect skin,lungs or blood and is one the major drug resistant bacteria. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus - MRSA is a strain of staphylococcal bacteria resistant to the antibiotic Methicillin and other antibiotics that normally control staph infections. Now there are 2 variations of MRSA: Hospital Acquired MRSA - HA-MRSA and Community Acquired MRSA - CA-MRSA.

    The drug Methicillin was the drug of choice for some time against this pathogen. When Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus Aureus emerged in the hospitals, it was found that many of the infections are resistant to other drugs like - methicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin as well. According to WHO, patients with MRSA are estimated to be 64% more likely to die than people with a non-resistant form of the infection.

    Finally the only drug left to control MRSA infection was vancomycin until in 2002, another vancomycin resistant strain (VRSA) appeared. The struggle against such infections continue with newer antibiotics like Daptomycin and Linezolid though some hospitals have reported resistance to these antibiotics too.


    Antibiotics interactions with Alcohol :

    Many non-prescription medications such as cough syrup, tonics may contain alcohol in their formulation which can result in drug interactions. Alcohol may cause severe reaction when combined with some anti-microbial.

    Perhaps the most important alcohol-antibiotic interactions are with the anti protozoal agent belonging to the Nitroimidazole group – Metronidazole or Tinidazole which is used for a variety of infections, including gastrointestinal (like Giardiasis and Amebiasis) and respiratory / Urinary Tract Infections (UTI).

    Anti protozoal drugs result in reactions when combined with alcohol. Even the new Nitazoxanide which is relatively free from the bitter metallic taste of the Metronidazole and Tinidazole still can react with alcohol in a reaction called 'disulfiram' which may cause nausea, vomiting, flushing of skin, stomach cramps, headaches, rapid heart rate and difficulty in breathing. A similar reaction can occur with other antibiotics as well.

    Alcohol is a depressant of the central nervous system and when combined with antibiotics it can lead to drowsiness, confusion and dizziness. The effects can get serious while driving and in the elderly if the patient is consuming CNS depressant medications such as opioid pain relievers. Alcohol can potentiate the actions of some drugs while limiting the actions of other drugs.

    Avoid drinking alcohol completely when the following drugs are taken:( We have even included many older drugs which may no longer be prescribed here)

    • Metronidazole: Used to clear infections - dental, UTI or leg ulcers and pressure sores.
    • Tinidazole: To treat infections and clear bacteria called Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) from the gut.

    Be wary of drinking alcohol while taking the following drugs:

    • Co-trimoxazole: Consuming alcohol while taking this drug can sometimes cause a similar reaction to that of Metronidazole or Tinidazole, although this is very rare.
    • Linezolid: It can interact with alcoholic drinks - even if the alcohol content is low enough - such as wine, beer, sherry and lager.
    • Doxycycline: Known to interact with alcohol and in people with a history of chronic alcohol consumption, the effectiveness of Doxycycline may be reduced.
    • Erythromycin: There is a minor interaction with alcohol that may slightly reduce or delay the effect of this drug

    Antimicrobial - Alcohol drug interactions

    Drug Effect Advice
    Metronidazole disulfiram-like reaction To avoid combination with alcohol during treatment and for 72 hours after discontinuation of drug
    Tinidazole abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headaches, flushing Avoid combination with alcohol during treatment and for 72 hours after discontinuation drug
    Cefotetan flushing, sweating, headache, tachycardia (rapid heart beat) Avoid combination with alcohol during treatment and for 72 hours after discontinuation of drug
    Cycloserine combination may increase risk of central nervous system toxicity; possible seizures Avoid alcohol while taking drug
    Ethionamide combination may increase risk of central nervous system toxicity; possible psychosis Avoid alcohol while taking drug
    Isoniazid increased risk of liver toxicity if daily alcohol consumption Avoid alcohol while taking drug
    Linezolid increased risk of hypertensive crisis (dangerous elevated blood pressure) Avoid large quantities of drug with beverages
    Voriconazole (antifungal) combination with alcohol may either increase or decrease this drug presence due to altered liver metabolism Avoid this drug with chronic or acute excessive alcohol use
    Pyrazinamide combination with alcohol may increase risk for liver toxicity Use caution while using this drug
    Thalidomide combination with alcohol may increase risk for additive sedation, drowsiness, confusion, motor skills; use caution if driving Avoid alcohol while taking this drug
    Rifampin combination with alcohol may increase risk for liver toxicity Avoid use in alcoholics or with chronic daily alcohol use
    Didanosine combination with alcohol may increase risk for Pancreatitis Avoid use in alcoholics or with chronic daily alcohol use

    Antibiotic Side Effects | Antibiotic Interactions | Antibiotics with Alcohol

    Tags: #List of general Antibiotics #Antibiotic Interactions
  • Here is how it works

    Enter your health or medical queries in our Artificial Intelligence powered Application here. Our Natural Language Navigational engine knows that words form only the outer superficial layer. The real meaning of the words are deduced from the collection of words, their proximity to each other and the context.

    Check all your health queries

    Diseases, Symptoms, Tests and Treatment arranged in alphabetical order:

    TargetWoman holistic Health Application

    A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z

    Popular Topics
    Free Health App
    Free Android Health App Free WebApp for iPhones


    Bibliography / Reference

    Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: April 22, 2024