Anovulation indicates a situation where a woman is unable to get pregnant as there is no release of ripened egg from the ovaries. While often a woman might have her menstrual periods, ovulation may not be taking place. Often anovulation is a major cause for infertility in women. Anovulation can occur due to stress, reaction from drugs, over-exercising or problems in endocrine system such as progesterone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia or ovarian failure. Other causes include excessive weight gain, anorexia or bulimia. A woman suffering from PCOS is also likely to suffer to anovulation. Symptoms of anovulation include amenorrhea, absence of PMS symptoms and hirsutism.
Various tests such as Thyroidfunction test, Adrenal function test, LH and FSH tests and prolactin test are conducted to check for possible causes of anovulation. It may be accompanied by pelvic ultrasound, CAT scan and MRI. Treatment with fertility drugs usually solves the problem of anovulation. These include Clomiphene, Gonadotropin and Pergonal. The woman is required to maintain good body weight with right diet and exercise.
If there is continuous reduced menstrual flow and the bleeding lasts for less than 2 days for repeated cycles, it is considered a menstrual disorder and medically termed as Hypomenorrhea. This condition is also known as scanty menstruation, scanty bleeding or scanty discharge. Sometimes Hypomenorrhea may result in infertility because there is not enough uterine lining each month to sustain a pregnancy. Scanty menstruation in itself is not a disease as long as ovulation is taking place regularly.
In few cases, Hypomenorrhea may run in families.
Any imbalance in the production of hormones gives rise to menstrual disorders. Estrogen is responsible for creating the inner lining of the uterus and low levels of this hormone causes very thin womb lining leading to hypomenorrhea. Likewise excess release of a male hormone called testosterone also contributes to the Hypomenorrhea. Prolonged use of pills or IUDs often results in endometrial atrophy leading to scanty bleeding during periods.
Hypothyroidism, one of the causes for hormonal imbalance, occurs when the pituitary gland does not function to its full potential and fails to secret the required TSH hormone. Most often hypothyroidism causes anovulation resulting in Hypomenorrhea.
Thickness of the uterine lining or endometrium determines the amount of blood flow, insufficient thickness of uterine lining causes scanty flow. Any scar, surgery or illness may cause damage to the tissues of the endometrium and also reduces the cavity of the uterine lining leading to scanty blood flow. Asherman's Syndrome, a rare uterine disease leads to adhesions on the endometrium and can be a likely cause for hypomenorrhea.
Working out or intense physical exercise for long duration on a regular basis and losing weight drastically also results in short and light periods. Excess exercise may drop the fat content abnormally and disturbs the hormone production causing light periods.
Hypomenorrhea can also be associated with emotional disturbances and extreme stress. Such mental state for a prolonged period disturbs the pattern of blood flow. Stress hormones block the release of the luteinizing hormone; a precondition for normal bleeding.
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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: March 4, 2021