Also called water intoxication, hyponatremia is a condition when the blood sodium level drops down drastically or drops to a lower than normal level. Sodium is an electrolyte that helps regulate the water around the cells. Hyponatremia is a condition wherein the sodium in the body gets diluted due to excessive water intake or some medical condition. When this particular condition sets in, the water level in the body rises and the cells begin to swell. The level of water accumulated in the body is higher than that can be excreted. This swelling causes various health problems that may range from mild to severe.
Normal level of sodium in the body is between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter of sodium. When sodium level falls below 135mEq/L, hyponatremia occurs. Blood tests and urine tests help diagnose the condition. Treatment includes restricted water intake, drugs, medications, etc.
Hypovolemic hyponatremia: Too little water and sodium in the body, this condition occurs due to excessive sweating while exercising.
Euvolemic hyponatremia: Water level is too high, this condition occurs due to certain medications or chronic health conditions.
Hypervolemic hyponatremia: Body has too much water, occurs as a result of kidney failure, liver failure or heart failure.
Common causes include:
Common symptoms reported include nausea, headache, confusion, muscle cramps, seizures and loss of energy.
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Diseases, Symptoms, Tests and Treatment arranged in alphabetical order:
Bibliography / Reference
Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: January 27, 2023