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Behcet's Syndrome

Turkish dermatologist, Hulusi Behcet (1889-1948) recognized and reported in 1937 symptoms of Behcet's syndrome. A dental infection is attributed as the etiology of the disease. The American Behcet's Disease Foundation (ABDA) was founded in 1978 with the objective to provide support to patients and family as well the caregivers. In the absence of a cure or a single test to definitely determine Behcet's syndrome or Behcet's disease, educate about the syndrome to seek prompt medical attention for treatment.


Morbus Behcet or Silk Road disease is the other name for Behcet Syndrome or disease. Month of May is Behcet's Awareness month and May 20th is Behcet's awareness day. The focus is on spreading awareness and stress the importance of self-help.


Behcet's syndrome facts


  • Non-contagious
  • Exact cause is unknown
  • Genetic predisposition is high.
  • Symptoms are similar to other disease of the digestive tract, Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease
  • No single test to confirm diagnosis.
  • No cure available.
  • Disease affects different parts of the body.
  • Men and women are equally prone but more severe in men.
  • In the US, affects more women.
  • More prevalent in Middle East, Mediterranean and Eastern Asia.
  • Turkey has the highest prevalence.
  • Leading cause of blindness in Japan.
  • Most common among age group 20-30.
  • Treatment requires more than one specialist.
  • Continued, extensive research to explore possible genetic, bacterial and viral cause.
  • Research is on to identify medicines to better treat Behcet's disease.

Behcet's syndrome – Autoimmune disease

There are over 14, 000 auto-immune diseases and 7000 plus are rare. Behcet's syndrome is rare. Autoimmune disease occurs when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own healthy tissues. Though the clinical feature of auto immunity is absent, Behcet's syndrome is classified as an autoimmune disease as it has various aspects related to autoimmune disease. Enhanced inflammatory response (inflammation of blood vessels) is one such aspect. Significant number of women as compared to men are more likely to be affected by autoimmune disease. Estrogen predisposes women to autoimmune disease.


Behcet's syndrome symptoms

The inflammation of blood vessels, particularly veins causes symptoms in many parts of the body. Swelling, redness, heat and pain are select features of an inflammation. Though Behcet's disease can affect any part of the body, involvement of the neurological system is known as neuro-Behcet's disease and is rated the most disabling complication of the disease. Not that common, neuro-Behcet's disease affects about 10 per cent of people with Behcet's disease.


The most common symptom of Behcet's syndrome is the regular occurrence of ulcers in the mouth and genitals. The symptoms are an off-shoot of inflammation of the eyes, skin, arteries, veins, joints, nervous and digestive systems and heart. Symptoms can be mild or severe. Symptoms can be noticed between ages 20-30 years.

Mouth ulcers: May look like normal mouth ulcers but are more painful and numerous in number. Ulcers develop in the tongue, lips, and gums and inside of the cheeks. Even if the ulcers heal within a couple of weeks, they recur.


Genital ulcers: In men, though genital ulcers can appear anywhere in the groin area, including the penis, it is more common on the scrotum. In women, the ulcers appear on the cervix (neck of the womb), vulva or vagina. The ulcers are usually painful and scars appear around the area.

Skin lesions: Resembling acne, pustular skin lesions can appear anywhere on the body. Erythema nodosum results in red, painful, tender lumps that can measure one to five centimeters. It is the result of inflammation in the fatty layer of the skin. It can appear on the legs and ankles but can also appear on the face, neck or arms. Erythema nodosum related to other disease heal without scars but if related to Behcet's disease, leaves the skin totally discolored.


Inflammation of the eyes: Sudden inflammation of the eyes is a common symptom of Behcet's syndrome. A group of connected tissues, uveal tract is inside the eye. This uveal tract gets inflamed. Uveitis as it is named can cause symptoms such as, painful red eyes, blurred vision and floaters (dots that move across the field of vision). With a possibility of permanent visual impairment, it is best to seek medical attention for appropriate treatment without any delay.

Skin sensitivity: Pathergy is a condition signifying sensitivity of the skin, particularly injury or irritation. Even a needle prick can lead to developing a large red lump in a day or two.


Gastrointestinal symptoms: Inflammation of the stomach and intestines causes symptoms such as loss of appetite, stomach pain, indigestion, diarrhea, feeling sick and vomiting. There is a possibility of damage to the bowel resulting in bleeding. Blood in stools suggests inflammation of the internal lining of the bowel.


Blood clots: Inflammation of the veins can lead to formation of blood clots or thrombosis.

Joint pain: Joint pain in ankles, wrists, knees, elbows and hips is common. Inflammation in the joint can cause swelling, redness and tenderness.

Brain: Meninges is the coverage of the brain. Inflammation of the brain or tissue that covers the brain (meninges) causes symptoms like headache, neck stiffness along with high body temperature. In severe cases, it can damage the nervous tissue and lead to extreme weakness or impaired function of the body.

Aneurysms: Aneurysms are outpouchings of blood vessel walls due to inflammation of arteries in the lungs. This can lead to massive lung hemorrhage. Symptoms include pain in the limbs, severe headache, feeling dizzy, and breathlessness, coughing up blood, confusion and loss of consciousness.

Inflammation of the nervous system: Inflammation of the central nervous system occurs in 5%-10% of reported cases. This is regarded as the most serious symptom. Typical symptoms include headache, double vision, loss of balance, seizures, partial paralysis on one side of the body, personality changes. Any of these are noticeable within the first five years of recognizing initial symptoms.

General symptoms: Experiencing extreme fatigue to the extent that it interrupts with everyday routine is a general symptom of Behcet's syndrome.


Behcet's Syndrome Causes

The exact cause remains unclear. Though regarded as an autoimmune disorder, it is unclear what triggers the autoimmune disorder. Other possible association is genetics. Certain ethnic groups or a family member with the disease increases chances of developing Behcet's syndrome. People with gene HLA B51, variations in other genes like IL10, IL23R-IL2RB2 increases the risk of developing the disease considerably. However, the condition does not have a clear pattern of incidence.


Risk factors identified include:

Age: Children and older adults can develop the condition. But men and women in the age group of 20-3 are more likely to be affected.

Location: People from countries in the Middle East and Far East, including Turkey, Iran, Japan and China are more likely to develop Behcet's syndrome.

Sex: The disease is more severe in men.

Genes: Having certain genes increases the risk of developing the syndrome.


Behcet's Syndrome Diagnosis

In the absence of a single test to diagnose Behcet's syndrome, doctors look out for symptoms. Blood tests or other laboratory tests are recommended to rule out other disease or illness. The criteria include:

Mouth sores: Mouth sores are very common. Many disorders are related to mouth sores. If the mouth sores recur every three months in 12 months, it is regarded as criteria for evaluating the disease.

Doctors look for two additional signs.



Behcet's Syndrome - time to seek help

Recognizing symptoms and relating the symptoms to Behcet's disease is essential. Note down symptoms being experienced and add related information that affects normal routine. Seek appointment with a doctor. If medical attention is delayed, the condition can worsen and lead to losing eye sight or a stroke. At the meeting, divulge family history and inform about medications for any other health issue or supplements being taken.


You are most likely to seek specialist help. Rheumatologist for arthritis, joint pain etc, Ophthalmologist for eye problems, gynecologist or an urologist for genital sores, dermatologist for skin issues, Gastroenterologist for digestive difficulties or neurologist for symptoms related to CNS (central nervous system).


Behcet's Syndrome Treatment

There is no cure for Behcet's syndrome. The treatment is aimed at alleviating the symptoms, reducing the frequency and intensity, put the disease into remission and prevent serious complications. Medicines for controlling the individual symptoms are prescribed. Some medicines are prescribed with other medicines to suppress the activity of immune system. Some medicines can have side effects too.

For the skin: gels, creams and ointment that contain a Corticosteroid to reduce the inflammation.


For mouth sores: Special mouth washes with Corticosteroid to reduce the pain and associated discomfort.

For the eyes: Eye drops with Corticosteroid to relieve pain and redness in the eye.


Coping with Behcet's syndrome


  • Take ample rest in between flares.
  • Pay attention to diet and exercise.
  • Find support groups and connect.
  • Login to American Behcet's Disease Association.
  • Read message boards and engage in chat sessions.

Antidepressants

Depression is a very common medical disorder that affects every 1 in 5 individual in the U.S. It is often said that depression results from chemical imbalance in the brain, either too little or too much of certain chemicals in the brain. Factors that lead to chemical imbalance could be one or a combination of recent events, past issues, genetic vulnerability, medications, medical problems etc.


Antidepressants, as the name suggests treat depressants. About 50% of people who take antidepressant find their depression symptoms halved. The first antidepressant drug was Imipramine (Tofranil). It was marketed in 1958. Today, there are close to 30 antidepressants that are grouped into five categories. Each has different chemical structures to treat moderate to severe depression.


Types of antidepressants

There are five main types of antidepressants. They differ in the neurotransmitters they affect.

1. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

2. Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)

3. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

4. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)

5. Atypical antidepressants


Antidepressants - Types

Under these five types of antidepressants, there are around 30 antidepressant medicines. They are grouped based on how they work. Each antidepressant is different and affects different systems of the brain to different degrees. Considering the difference to be as small as 3-4%, it can have an enormous impact on an individual to alleviate depression symptoms.

Patients respond to antidepressants differently. Some may respond to or tolerate one antidepressant and not respond to or tolerate another antidepressant. Each antidepressant has different use, adverse effects and drug interactions. Prescription of anti-depressants is based on the symptoms, patient's age, family history, drug tolerance, side effects and past response to antidepressants.


Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

How MAOIs work: When depressed, the brain chemistry is impacted. The level of three neurotransmitters, norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine is low. Collectively, these three are called monoamines. An enzyme called monoamine oxidase is linked to removing the three neurotransmitters from the brain.

Antidepressants such as MAOIs inhibit monoamine oxidase and allow more of the three neurotransmitters to remain in the brain. The levels of the chemicals rise. This elevates mood as there is improved brain cell communication.

MAOIs have been replaced by antidepressants that are far safer and cause fewer side effects. MAOIs carry the risk of considerable side effects and drug interactions.

The Food and Drug Administration has approved these MAOIs to treat depression.


  • Isocarboxazid (Marplan)
  • Phenelzine (Nardil)
  • Selegiline (Emsam)
  • Tranylcypromine (Parnate)

Of the four, Selegiline (Emsam) is a skin patch approved to treat major depressive disorder. The other three are available as oral medications.


Side effects of MAOIs

MAOIs carry the risk of considerable side effects and drug interactions. Hence, MAOIs are prescribed when other depressants fail to provide desired results.

Common side effects of MAOIs are dry mouth, nausea, diarrhea or constipation, headache, drowsiness, tiredness, weakness, insomnia, dizziness or lightheadedness, skin reaction at the patch site.

Other possible serious side effects include fainting, mental/mood changes, muscle stiffness, swollen ankles and legs, involuntary muscle jerks, shaking (tremor), low blood pressure, reduced sexual desire, sudden weight gain, eye pain, double/blurred vision, difficulty starting urine flow, muscle cramps, prickling or tingling sensation in the skin.


MAOIs interactions with other medicines

When two or more drugs interact, it can reduce the efficacy of the drug. Possibility of unexpected side effects is high. Knowing drug interactions is critical for your health. It is best to discuss with health care provider before taking MAOI anti-depressant medication.

MAOIs can cause serious reactions if taken with certain other drugs.

MAOI interaction with other antidepressants


  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Tetracyclic antidepressants
  • SSRIs
  • Other MAOIs
  • Serotonin antagonists
  • Mirtazapine
  • Venlafaxine

MAOI interaction with asthma medicines


  • Ephedrine and other asthma drugs
  • Inhalants with albuterol, metaproterenol or other beta-adrenegic bronchodilators
  • Theophylline

MAOIs interact with cold, cough, allergy, sinus, decongestant and hay fever medications. The medicines can be in the form of tablets, ointment, sprays or drops.

  • Antihistamines
  • Dextromethorphan
  • Ephedrine
  • Phenylephrine
  • Oxymetazoline
  • Phenylpropanolamine
  • Pseudoephedrine

MAOIs interaction with diabetes medicines


  • Insulin
  • Oral hypoglycemic agents.

MAOIs interaction with medicines to treat low blood pressure.


  • Dopamine
  • Epinephrine
  • Isoproterenol
  • Metaraminol
  • Methyldopa
  • Norepinephrine

MAOIs interaction with medicines to treat high blood pressure.


  • Guanadrel
  • Hydralazine
  • Methyldopa
  • Reserpine
  • Beta-blockers
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Diuretics

MAOIs interaction with mood-stabilizer medicines


  • Carbamazepine
  • Lithium

MAOIs interaction with pain-killers and anesthetic medicines.


  • Anesthetics (general)
  • Anesthetics (local)
  • Cyclobenzaprine
  • Meperidine

MAOIs interaction with sedatives and tranquilizers


  • Alcohol
  • Barbiturates
  • Buspirone
  • Major tranquilizers
  • Minor tranquilizers
  • L-tryptophan

MAOIs interaction with stimulants and street drugs


  • Amphetamines
  • Benzedrine
  • Benzphetamine
  • Dextroamphetamine
  • Methamphetamine
  • Methylphenidate

MAOIs interaction with weight loss and appetite suppression medication

  • Cylert
  • Fenfluramine
  • Phendimetrazine
  • Phentermine and OTC medications
  • Phenylpropanolamine

MAOIs interaction with other MAOI medicines

  • Caffeine (coffee, tea, soda and chocolate)
  • Disulfiram
  • L-dopa

MAOIs interaction with food and beverages

MAOIs with certain foods and beverages can cause dangerous interactions. It is best to consult your doctor for a complete list of foods and beverages to be abstained from. Take for example tyramine, an amino acid which occurs naturally in the body and helps regulate blood pressure. When MAOI is recommended, foods and beverages with tyramine should be restricted as it can quickly reach dangerous levels and spike blood pressure.


  • Foods with high levels of tyramine (an amino acid to regulate blood pressure) - Strong or aged cheese, cured meats, smoked or processed meats, sauces, soybeans and soybeans products, snow peas, broad beans and their pods, dried or overripe fruits, meat tenderizers, yeast-extract spreads, alcoholic beverages.
  • Protein rich fruits (avocados, fava beans, Italian green beans or snow peas, sauerkraut and canned figs)
  • Meat products
  • Fish products
  • Milk products
  • Alcoholic beverages
  • Improperly stored foods or stale foods.

MAOIs are not the first choice

MAOIs are prescribed only when all the other anti-depressants don't work. It's mainly due to the 'cheese effect'. The connection is established. Yes, those who ate products containing cheese while on an MAOI experienced severe headaches. Further, MAOI is not recommended for children or teenagers.


MAOI is given to people:

  • When other antidepressants haven't worked
  • Who cannot tolerate the side effects of other antidepressants
  • Who have a family or personal history of using MAOI successfully
  • With unusual depression symptoms

MAOI and psychotherapy

MAOI works best when paired with some form of psychotherapy. An antidepressant alone would not suffice to meet the behavioral, emotional or underlying mental health issues. A qualified psychotherapist can help in coping with the condition.


SNRIs type of anti-depressant

How SNRIs work: Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors affect two important brain chemicals, serotonin and norepinephrine. Serotonin is regarded as a 'feel-good' chemical. It is associated with positive feelings of wellbeing. Norepinephrine is associated with alertness and energy. An imbalance can cause depression.

SNRIs block the reabsorption (recycling) of the neurotransmitters in the brain. Reabsorption is going back into the cells that released them. When reabsorption happens, the levels go down. When SNRIs block reabsorption, the levels of the two neurochemicals increase and helps improve and elevate mood, enhances the alertness of the person experiencing symptoms of depression.

This type of anti-depressant is also called dual reuptake inhibitors or dual-acting antidepressant as they affect two important brain chemicals-serotonin and norepinephrine. The Food and Drug Administration has approved these MAOIs to treat depression.


  • Desvenlafaxine (Pristiq, Khedezla)
  • Duloxetine (Cymbalta)
  • Levomilnacipran (Fetzima)
  • Venlafaxine (Effexor XR)

SNRIs interaction with other medications

Interactions between medicines can cause reactions which can be life-threatening. Before taking an anti-depressant, inform doctor of any/all medicines being taken. SNRIs interact with medicines like:

  • Warfarin (Coumadin, Marevan)
  • St.John's wort
  • MAOIs
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Triptans
  • Anticoagulants
  • Antihistamines
  • Alcohol
  • Theophyline
  • Codeine
  • Beta blocker medications for heart disease or high blood pressure
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Cisapride
  • Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
  • Thioridazine (Mellaril)
  • Terfenadine (Seldane)
  • Sumatriptin for migraine headaches
  • Ketoconazole
  • Trimadol
  • Other antidepressants

Besides some medicines, intake of certain substances as given below, can increase the toxicity of SNRIs.

  • Alcohol
  • Drugs that depress the central nervous system
  • Decongestants
  • Medications used for insomnia

Side effects of SNRIs

Compared to other types of anti-depressants, SNRIs have fewer side effects. In most cases, the side effects go away after few days or weeks of taking SNRIs. Anti-depressant medications take four to six weeks to start working.

It is always best to inform the doctor of any side effect if experienced while taking any antidepressant. While taking an anti-depressant, it is not necessary for the patient to experience all the side effects. It may be any one or a few of these side effects.


  • Mild nausea
  • Headache
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Pain related to abdominal cramps
  • Vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Dizziness
  • Dry mouth
  • Difficulty in sleeping
  • Excessive sweating
  • Sexual problems
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss

Caution

Women who are pregnant or thinking of becoming pregnant and breastfeeding mothers should let the healthcare provider know while being prescribed an anti-depressant medication, including SNRIs.

Serotonin syndrome may occur when the levels of serotonin in the brain reaches high levels. It is triggered when an SNRI antidepressant is taken with another drug with high levels of serotonin (example – St.John's wort). Seek emergency medical help. The symptoms of severe serotonin level rise are very high fever, seizures, irregular heartbeat and unconsciousness.

Seek immediate medical attention, if while taking SNRIs, the patient:

1. Has abnormal bleeding

2. Has suicidal thoughts or behavior

3. Blood pressure levels rise (may increase when taking SNRIs)

4. Pressure of the fluid inside eye changes (narrow angle glaucoma)


Contraindication of SNRIs

Two SNRIs, namely Duloxetine and Milnacipran (approved to treat Fibromyalgia) is contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled narrow angle or angle-closure glaucoma. SNRIs can cause liver problems, including hepatitis. SNRIs are not recommended for people with liver problems and kidney problems (renal failure).

There is a high possibility of SNRIs affecting activities requiring mental or motor concentration. At least for the first few days or till such time the patient is accustomed to the effect, it is best to have family or friends or paid support.


Tricylic antidepressants (TCAs)

Also known as cyclic antidepressants or TCAs, this type of antidepressant is best suited for patients and is prescribed by doctor only when other drugs have failed to treat depression. TCAs are similar to SNRIs. TCAs increase levels of norepinephrine and serotonin, the two neurotransmitters and block the action of acetylcholine, another neurotransmitter. By restoring the balance in the brain Tricyclic antidepressants alleviate depression.

FDA approved Tricyclic antidepressants are:


  • Amitriptyline
  • Amoxapine
  • Desipramine (Norpramin)
  • Doxepin (Silenor)
  • Imipramine (Tofranil)
  • Nortriptyline (Pamelor)
  • Protriptyline (Vivactil)
  • Trimipramine (Surmontil)

Besides these, Maprotiline is a Tetracyclic antidepressant that is FDA approved to treat depression.


Side effects of Tricyclic antidepressants

40% of people taking antidepressants have side effects. Initially in most cases, the side effects may cause problem but would improve with time. Benefits of treatment outweigh the initial problems.

Tricyclic antidepressants are associated with many side effects. This is a reason why doctors prescribe other antidepressants with fewer side effects. Side effects are due to the interference of tricyclic antidepressants with autoimmune nervous system. Common side effects of TCAs are:


  • Dry mouth
  • Blurred vision
  • Constipation
  • Problems passing urine
  • Feeling drowsy
  • Feeling dizzy
  • Sudden weight gain or weight loss
  • Excessive sweating at night
  • Skin rash
  • Palpitation (Fast heart rhythm)

It is best to seek medical attention if the person experiences symptoms like:


  • Trouble breathing
  • Swelling of face, lips, tongue or throat
  • Hives
  • Thoughts of suicide
  • Agitation and restlessness
  • Seizures
  • Fast heartbeat
  • Nausea and vomiting

Drug interaction includes interaction of drugs with other drugs, interaction of drugs with food (drug-food interaction) and other substances. The interaction may increase or decrease the effectiveness of the drugs and/or its side effects. Sometimes, the interactions may lead to psychological sufferings.

Prior to starting treatment with any medication, including antidepressant, make a list of all the medications being taken and provide it to the health care provider.


  • MAOIs
  • Hypotensive agents (medicines used to treat blood pressure)
  • Central nervous system depressants like alcohol, sedatives or hypnotics and barbiturates
  • Anti psychotic agents
  • Cimetidine, SSRIs, SNRIs, levodopa, anticoagulants
  • Drugs that block acetylcholine
  • Clonidine
  • Sleeping pills
  • Pain killers
  • Tranquillizers
  • Antihypertensive medicines
  • Antihistamines
  • Antifungal medicines

Caution

While taking TCAs it is best not to drink alcohol, as it can add to the side effects. People who have seizures, difficulty urinating, glaucoma or heart conditions (coronary heart disease) the symptoms can get worse.


SSRIs or Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

Of the different types of antidepressants for depression, SSRIs or Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors are most commonly prescribed. SRIs are relatively safe and have fewer side effects.

SSRIs ease symptoms of moderate to severe depression by increasing the levels of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin is one of the chemicals (neurotransmitter) that help to relay messages from one area of the brain to another. Serotonin is believed to influence a variety of psychological and other body functions. An imbalance in serotonin levels may influence mood and lead to depression. Low brain cell production of serotonin, a lack of receptor sites to receive the serotonin that is made, inability of serotonin to reach the receptor sites, shortage of tryptophan – chemical from which serotonin is made, any of these can lead to depression.

SSRIs are designed to boost serotonin levels. This enables production of new brain cells which in turn allows the depression to ease. SSRIs are called selective as they primarily affect serotonin and not other transmitters. SSRIs approved by the FDA for the treatment of depression are:


  • Citalopram (Celexa)
  • Escitalopram (Lexapro)
  • Fluoxetine (Prozac)
  • Fluvoxamine (Luvox, Luvox CR)
  • Paroxetine (Paxil, Paxil CR)
  • Sertraline (Zoloft)

SSRIs and drug interaction

SSRIs are subject to extensive oxidative metabolism (a chemical process wherein oxygen is used to make energy from carbohydrates) in the liver. Drug interactions with SSRI are either due to overdosing of the drug combined.


  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Anti platelets (to prevent blood clots)
  • Theophylline (to treat asthma)
  • Medicines to treat Schizophrenia and psychosis
  • Medicines to treat severe depression and bipolar disorder
  • Medicines to treat migraines
  • Decongestants
  • Other antidepressants

Foods or substances to avoid while taking SSRIs

  • Alcohol
  • Diuretics
  • St.John's wort
  • Caffeine (Excessive consumption)
  • Grape fruit
  • Cheese (before or after taking pills)

SSRIs are not suitable for people with certain medical conditions. While an antidepressant medication is being prescribed, the health care provider should be informed if the patient has any of these medical conditions to weigh the benefits vs. risks.


  • Bipolar disorder
  • Hemophilia (Bleeding disorder)
  • Type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes
  • Epilepsy
  • Narrow angle glaucoma
  • Serious kidney, liver or heart problems

Side effects of SSRIs

The object of knowing side effects of any medication is to be aware of what to expect and to work out a strategy to continue medication and speed up recovery. Though SSRIs are the most commonly prescribed antidepressant, their side effects cannot be ignored.

All SSRIs tend to work in a similar way. But the active ingredient differs. Some people may experience side effects and some people may not. And even if experienced, common side effects of SSRIs are most likely to improve after few doses once the body adjusts to the medication. Talk to health care provider to know possible ways of reducing these side effects. For example, taking medication with food can reduce risk of nausea.


  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Insomnia
  • Headaches
  • Nausea
  • Pupil dilation
  • Restlessness
  • Nervousness
  • Dizziness
  • Diminished sexual desire
  • Erectile dysfunction in men
  • Difficulty achieving orgasm (men and women)

Caution

There are risks associated with taking any type of antidepressants during pregnancy. The medication does cross the placenta and are found in both amniotic fluid and breast milk. Associated risks are preterm birth, low birth weight, birth defects and delays in developmental milestones. The health care provider would recommend use of antidepressant during pregnancy based on the balance between risks and benefits. SSRIs have the best safety record. To treat depression during pregnancy SSRIs like Citalopram (Celexa), Fluoxetine (Prozac) and Sertraline (Zoloft) are recommended by health care providers.


Atypical antidepressants

How it works: Typically, these antidepressants do not fit into other types of antidepressants. Each atypical antidepressant is unique and works in a different way to treat depression. Atypical antidepressants are recommended for patients with major depression with inadequate responses or intolerable side effects during first-line treatment with SSRIs.

The link between the three main monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain i.e. dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin and depression symptom is certain. Increase or decrease of specific neurotransmitter brings about specific symptoms which in turn suggest that depression can be assigned to specific neurochemical mechanism. Accordingly, doctors prescribe specific antidepressant drug that target symptoms-specific neurotransmitters to treat patient.

Atypical antidepressants work in this manner by effecting changes in brain chemistry. They change the levels of one or more neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, serotonin or norepinephrine. Changing the balance of these chemicals help brain cells send and receive messages, which in turn boosts mood and provide a sense of relaxation.

Atypical antidepressants approved by the FDA to treat depression are:

  • Bupropion (Brand name:Wellbutrin, Forfivo XL, Aplenzin)
  • Mirtazapine (Brand name: Remeron)
  • Nefazodone
  • Trazodone
  • Vortioxetine (Brand name: Trintellix)

Side effects of atypical antidepressants

Some patients may not experience any side effect. Those who experience can feel assured that it may go away after a time. In case it persists, the health care provider may prescribe a different medication. Each atypical antidepressant is unique, side effects too vary.


Bupropion
  • Anxiety
  • Restlessness or agitation
  • Confusion
  • Constipation
  • Dry mouth
  • Headache
  • Insomnia
  • Increased and irregular heartbeat
  • Nausea
  • Sore throat
  • Tremor

Mirtazapine
  • Constipation
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Dry mouth
  • Increased appetite
  • Increased cholesterol
  • Increased or decreased blood pressure
  • Low white blood cell count
  • Sleepiness
  • Weakness
  • Weight gain

Nefazodone
  • Blurred vision
  • Confusion
  • Constipation
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Dry mouth
  • Headache
  • Low blood pressure
  • Nausea
  • Excessive sleep
  • Weakness

Trazodone
  • Excessive sleep
  • Headache
  • Dry mouth
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Insomnia
  • Low blood pressure
  • Feeling confused
  • Blurred vision
  • Irregular heartbeat

Caution

Atypical antidepressants can cause some problems in some circumstances. While atypical antidepressant is prescribed for treatment of depression, the patient should inform the healthcare provider of any health issues and related medicines being taken.


  • Women who are pregnant or planning pregnancy should discuss the risks/benefits of taking atypical antidepressant. Never stop the medication suddenly and without informing the doctor as it poses great risks.

  • Seek immediate medical attention if symptoms related to Serotonin syndrome occurs. When two medications that affect an increase in serotonin are combined, it can lead to Serotonin Syndrome. Symptoms include anxiety, agitation, sweating, confusion, tremors, restlessness, lack of coordination and a rapid heartbeat.

  • Drinking alcohol or using illegal drugs while taking antidepressant medication may decrease the benefits, worsen the condition and increase adverse effects of the medication.

  • Atypical antidepressant Bupropion should be avoided by patients with seizure disorder or an eating disorder like bulimia or anorexia.

  • Mirtazapine is not approved for use in children. Also, Mirtazapine increases cholesterol levels.

  • Nefazodone can aggravate liver disease.

  • Trazodone is to be avoided by people with heart related ailments.

  • Vortioxetine is linked to risk of bleeding.

Atypical antidepressant - Drug and food interaction

Certain drugs or substances may increase blood levels and toxicity.


Bupropion
  • Alcohol
  • Drugs for insomnia
  • SSRIs
  • TCAs
  • MAOIs
  • Beta Blockers
  • Anti arrhythmic drugs
  • Levodopa

Duloxitine
  • Alcohol
  • Drugs for insomnia
  • Anti arrhythmic drugs
  • Phenothiazines
  • TCAs
  • MAOIs
  • Warfarin
  • Fluvoxamine
  • Fluoxetine
  • Paroxetine
  • Rdioquin
  • Quinolone antibiotics

Mirtazapine
  • drugs taken for insomnia
  • TCAs
  • Thyroid medication
  • Phenothiazines and Benzodiazepines

Nefazodone
  • Alcohol
  • Drugs for insomnia
  • Buspirone
  • Carbamazepine
  • Cisapride
  • Cyclosporine
  • Digoxin
  • Pimozide
  • Thioridazine
  • Triazolam
  • St.John's wort
  • SSRIs
  • TCAs
  • Drugs that lead to abnormal heart rhythms
  • Drugs to treat high cholesterol
  • Buspirone
  • Sibutramine
  • Sumatriptan
  • Drugs for migraine headache

Trazodone
  • Alcohol
  • Drugs taken for insomnia
  • Clonidine
  • Digoxin
  • MAOIs
  • Phenytoin
  • Warfarin
  • Antifungal agents
  • Carbamazepine
  • Phenothiazines
  • Ritonavir
  • SSRIs
  • St.John's wort
  • Drugs that cause abnormal heart rhythms

Venlafaxine
  • Clozapine
  • Desipramine
  • Haloperidol
  • Indinavir
  • SSRIs
  • Warfarin
  • Cimetidine
  • MAOIs
  • St.John's wort

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Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: September 23, 2019