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Clavicle Fracture

A fracture in the collar bone or clavicle bone is called clavicle fracture. A clavicle fracture can occur at three places namely Middle third - middle part of the clavicle, Distal third - end of the clavicle connecting the shoulder and Medial third - end of the clavicle connecting the sternum.


Clavicle bone fracture can occur while


  • Experiencing a fall when the arms are outstretched.
  • Experiencing any type of blow directly on the clavicle bone.
  • In new born babies, while they pass through the birth canal.
  • In the aged, due to osteoporosis.
  • In any sport, where physical contact is possible.
  • Physical fights or violence.

Clavicle fracture symptoms include inflammation and tenderness of fractured area, inability to move the arm and pain and bulge at fracture site. Medications to reduce pain are prescribed. The arm is hung on to a sling or a figure-of-eight strap that is used to retain the shoulder in the same position till the clavicle heals completely. Once the bone is strong enough, doctors suggest exercises to further strengthen them. Surgery is required only in very severe cases of dislocation.

Schatzki's Ring

Schatzki's Ring or esophageal ring refers to a smooth and narrow ring of tissue in the lower end of the esophagus. It narrows down and blocks the esophagus. This esophageal ring is noticed among nearly 6% of the population. Schatzki's Ring is usually associated with long term damage due to stomach acid reflux. It can also occur due to a congenital defect. Schatzki's Ring is often associated with a hiatal hernia. Some chunks of food may get caught in the ring and lead to dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing large pieces of food). The degree of difficulty in swallowing depends on the extent of narrowing of the esophagus.It also results in chest pain under the sternum. But very often persons suffering from Schatzki's Ring are unaware of it.


A gastroenterologist can help in treating Schatzki's Ring. An EGD (esophagogastroduodenoscopy) or barium swallow aid in diagnosing this condition. Endoscopic examination of the esophagus also helps in diagnosing Schatzki's Ring. Drinking plenty of fluids and eating soft food can help tackle this. Surgical dilation of esophageal ring with a mercury filled dilator (bougie) can offer relief. Dilators are passed into the mucosal ring to ease the symptoms. The lower esophageal ring tissue can be surgically removed too.


Costochondritis

Costochondritis involves inflammation of the cartilage connecting a rib to the breastbone. It manifests as sharp chest pain in the front chest wall. This condition is usually harmless and usually does not need any treatment. Often Costochondritis pain feels much like a heart attack. It is a common cause for chest pain. Costochondritis may also result from injury or as a complication of sternum surgery. Costochondritis can result from viral, bacterial or fungal infections. Tietze's syndrome is a condition where the costochondritis pain is also accompanied by swelling. Fibromyalgia can be another cause of costochondritis.


The pain occurs when coughing, sneezing or taking deep breaths. Patients suffering from costochondritis may have difficulty while breathing. Chest pain may be aggravated due to stress. Costochondritis cannot be diagnosed with imaging tools. NSAIDs are prescribed to relieve pain and inflammation. Muscle relaxants can give relief to those suffering from Costochondritis.

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Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: November 11, 2019