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Thyroid

Thyroid is a gland in the neck overlying the windpipe that regulates the speed of metabolic processes by producing a hormone with the eponymous name thyroxin. Thyroid is an endocrine gland. The thyroid gland which resembles a butterfly, sits astride the trachea. Its secretion - thyroxin, a hormone that regulates the metabolic activity of the body. Too much thyroxin races the metabolism resulting in weight loss, temperature elevation, nervousness and irritability. On the other hand, too little thyroxin slows down the metabolism rate resulting in deep voice, weight gain and water retention. This can result in retardation in physical growth and mental development in children. Both conditions equally affect hair and skin growth, bowel function and menstrual flow.

The thyroid gland is often enlarged whether it is secreting too much hormone, too little or even when it is functioning normally. The thyroid is controlled by the pituitary gland, which secretes Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in response to the amount of thyroxin in the blood. TSH increases the amount of thyroxin secreted by the thyroid and also causes the thyroid gland to grow.




Hyperthyroid Goiter : If the amount of TSH is high, the thyroid will both enlarge and secrete too much thyroxin. The result is termed as Hyperthyroidism with a goiter. Graves' disease is the most common form of this disorder.



Euthyroid goiter : If dietary iodine is insufficient, too little thyroxin will be secreted and the pituitary will sense the deficiency and produce more TSH. The thyroid gland will enlarge enough to make sufficient thyroxin.

Hypothyroid goiter: If dietary iodine is severely low, even an enlarged gland will not be able to make enough thyroxin. The gland may keep growing under the influence of TSH, but it may never make enough thyroxin.

An endocrinologist who specializes in the endocrine system can also be consulted for thyroid problems and diseases. Specialists who deal with thyroid problem are called thyroidologists. Thryoidologist and endocrinologist are specially trained doctors who diagnose and treat diseases affecting the thyroid gland. A thyroid specialist continues specialized education focused on thyroid issues after obtaining a Masters degree in medicine. He is qualified and trained to treat conditions that are complex and involve many systems within the body that may be affected due to thyroid imbalance.


A primary care doctor too often misses the diagnosis of a thyroid disease. Sometimes primary care doctors refer patients to a thyroid specialist when there is problem in the endocrine/ hormone systems. Thyroid specialists treat patients with too much or too little thyroid hormone. The thyroid specialist helps the patients to reach a hormone balance by replacing or blocking thyroid hormone. Thyroid specialists also receive special training to manage patients with thyroid growths or thyroid cancer and enlarged thyroid glands. There are times when the services of a thryoidologist or an endocrinologist become absolutely necessary.


  • A thyroid specialist has to be consulted when a patient is suffering from the hyperthyroid autoimmune - Graves' disease. This is a condition which can be treated only by a thyroid specialist and not by a regular GP. Graves's disease and hyperthyroid management involves a number of therapies, anti thyroid drug use, radioactive iodine treatments and even surgery if necessary.
  • Evaluation and treatment for thyroid nodule can be rendered only by thyroid specialists. Thyroid nodule is evaluated by ultrasound and fine needle biopsy process. This is done to rule out the possibility of thyroid cancer.
  • Thyroid cancer is rare and less than 15000 new cases are diagnosed every year. An expert thyroid specialist is highly recommended to diagnose, evaluate, treat and help in long term follow up and support management of thyroid cancer.
  • Thyroid surgery is performed when the gland becomes so large that is cosmetically disfiguring. This is normally done if a thyroid has markedly enlarged for years. Thyroid surgery should be performed by an experienced thyroid surgeon. Only an experienced thyroid surgeon can handle the complications that can arise due to thyroid surgery.
  • A thyroid specialist can assess hypothyroidism levels. This is done by evaluation of TSH level. S/He considers other options such as symptoms, family history and clinical factors to make a thyroid diagnosis.
  • After a person has been diagnosed for hypothyroidism, a thyroid specialist treats and manages the patient for other signs and symptoms as well. Such symptoms are weight gain, depression, brain fog, hair loss, shortness of breath, intolerance to heat and cold, muscle aches and joint pains, constipation, carpal tunnel, high cholesterol, infertility, Fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.

Cosmetologist

Beauty specialist, beautician, aesthetician and esthetician are the various other names for cosmetologist. A cosmetologist is a specialist in imparting beauty related treatments. Cosmetologists may be specialists in a particular area of beauty aid alone like for e.g. hair stylist who specializes in hair treatment, manicurist who specializes in nail care including pedicure, Electrologist who specializes in removal of unwanted hair etc.


Cosmetologists are either specialized in the entire field of cosmetology or are specialists in any particular field of cosmetology alone. They are persons who help people spell out their beauty by giving them tips on how to groom and by maintaining it for them.


Hair styling: Hair stylists are people, who trim, cut and styles the hair of customers. They help in suggesting the right hair style for a particular face type, color hair, perm hair and at times fix hair extensions and weaves too.


Esthetician: Skin care is their area of work and they specialize in facial treatments, body wraps, applying make up, waxing as part of beauty regime. There are estheticians who specialize in the entire body care and yet others who work along with dermatologists in repairing skin defects and help in laser skin resurfacing, laser hair removal and chemical peels.


Manicurists: These are people who specialize in nail care and they help keep the nails of the hand and the feet clean and healthy. They also can fit nail extensions according to the customer's requirements, treat cuticles, file and buff nails, apply polish.


Electrologists: These are specialists in the field of removing unwanted hair from any part of the body. They remove the hair with an electrolysis machine and hair removal using this technique is a permanent solution for unwanted hair.


  • Ensure that your cosmetologist holds a valid license issued by the state cosmetic school. After completion of formal training and for people above the age of 16, after successful completion of examinations license is issued.
  • Crosscheck with friends or relatives on the experience and exposure of the cosmetologist.
  • The cosmetologists must respect your views and bear in mind your interests before making suggestions for your look.
  • Check out on the facilities they have and on their maintenance of hygiene and cleanliness.

Modern techniques and cosmetologists

Latest beauty techniques use laser treatments and electrical and light theory.

  • With more exposure to the modern gadgets, beauty treatments have become easier; cosmetologists can use chemical relaxer or wavers for hair styling, electric and manipulative facials etc.
  • Analysis of the skin using skin scanner helps understand the individual's skin type better than physical examination. Microdermabrasion is used to peel of the skin lightly and induce a glow in the skin etc.
  • Laser treatments, electrical equipment for facials, hair styling and nail treatments have made beauty treatments more effective, economical and hygienic than ever before.

Immunologist

An Immunologist can be described as a medical specialist trained to prevent, diagnose, manage and treat diseases that result from abnormalities of the immune system. Immunologists are highly qualified and trained to treat immune system disorders such as allergies, asthma, inherited immunodeficiency diseases and autoimmune diseases. Clinical immunologists and allergy specialists undergo similar training as with any other medical specialists. After completion of four years of premedical education at a college or university, they receive at least four years of medical school education. After receiving general training in internal medicine, they receive additional training in immunology and allergy areas. Immunologists are involved in a gamut of work areas, in hospitals, private practice, diagnostic immunology laboratories, research centers and industrial houses. The medical immunologist or allergy specialist primarily identifies and treats the diseases that result from abnormalities of the immune system.


  • Patients are referred by a general physician for further diagnosis, confirmation and management of clinical disorders of the immune system.
  • Patients seeking the advice of an immunologist for education regarding disorders of the immune system.
  • Patients suffering from life threatening allergies such as anaphylaxis.
  • When food or occupational allergy is suspected, the patient is referred to an immunologist.
  • When a physician contemplates immunotherapy for treatment of allergic diseases, the patient is sent to the immunologist.
  • Patients suffering from asthma exhibiting continuing poor control despite regular use of asthma medication.
  • Patients with unexplained inflammation such as fevers of unknown origin, unexplained fevers, weight loss.
  • For investigation of recurrent or unusual opportunistic infections.

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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: September 23, 2019