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Uroflowmetry

Urinary disorders can often indicate a lot of underlying complications. Urination and the excreted product is very significant in evaluating a person's health in associated with kidney function and prostrate health in case of men. Urination is a complex procedure, which involves the contraction of the muscles associated with the detrusor and the external bladder tissues. The cerebral cortex facilitates the initiation and emptying of the bladder during the urination process.


Urination can be affected for various reasons such as weather, emotions, and hormonal imbalance, incontinence due to anatomical disorders and also underlying inflammations or infections. The regulation of blood pressure and adrenal surge is also involved in proper generation of urine. Physicians analyze the uroflowmetry parameters in order to diagnose urinary tract infections and also to evaluate the normal flow rate of urine to determine the normal function of the urinary tract and associated muscles.


Uroflowmetry is widely recommended in many countries, as it has become the foundation for diagnosing prostrate enlargement, urethritis and obstruction. Males over 30 years are advised to undergo this test as it is necessary to detect the early signs of an underlying condition such as prostate cancer, bladder tumor or neurogenic bladder dysfunction where the cause is spinal cord injury or lesion. Typical conditions where uroflowmetry might be advised are difficulty in urinating, frequency of urination, nocturia, enuresis, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, urethral stenosis or incomplete bladder emptying.


Preparation and procedure

Patients undergoing uroflowmetry procedure are advised to drink plenty of water in order to fill up the bladder as it provides a comprehensive analysis of the bladder functionality. They are also asked to hold the urine for a few hours before the test. Unlike other urinary examinations, here the specimen is not collected in a cup but the patient is asked to urinate into a funnel that connects to a container underneath. Special toilets are provided in some diagnostic centers for this procedure. The funnel shaped device measures the urine flow rate and quantity and the results obtained are recorded.


The normal flow rate of the urine varies from 10 ml to 20 ml per second. The results associated may vary both in males and females. The flow rate in women is often less as it may take 15 ml to 18 ml per second. In men, urine flow declines with age. Women have lesser change with age.

14 - 45 years

The average flow rate for males is 21 ml/sec.
The average flow rate for females is 18 ml/sec.

46 - 65 years

The average flow rate for males is 12 ml/sec.
The average flow rate for females is 18 ml/sec.

66 - 80 years

The average flow rate for males is 9 ml/sec.
The average flow rate for females is 18 ml/sec.


The diagnostic evaluations based on this can indicate the strength of the bladder muscles and also other disorders. Delayed urine flow indicates obstruction and also infections that are causing tissue inflammation. Increased flow of urine also indicates weak bladder muscles and also lack of cerebral cortex control. Incontinence is widely reported in elderly groups. Neurological conditions and trauma can also affect urine flow rate.


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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: October 20, 2019