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Pyometra

Pyometra is an uterine condition that involves accumulation of pus in uterine cavity, caused by interference with natural drainage of uterus. It is a rare disorder that normally occurs in post-menopausal woman with concurrent medical conditions. Most pyometra cases are associated with malignant disease of the uterus. Other causes include:


  • Foreign bodies

  • Puerperal infections or Postpartum infections

  • Uterine anomalies

  • Fibroid degeneration

  • Senile Cervicitis

  • Uterine compression sutures used for postpartum hemorrhage to avoid hysterectomy

  • Genital tuberculosis.

Symptoms

Most often, Pyometra does not present with any symptoms and the condition could be incidentally found through imaging performed for different purpose. Some of the symptoms of Pyometra include


  • Blood-stained purulent vaginal discharge

  • Symmetrical uterine enlargement

  • Post menopausal bleeding

  • Lower abdominal pain

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Diarrhea

  • Pyrexia (rarely)

Very rarely, pyometra leads to spontaneous perforation. It is a medical emergency and requires an immediate attention and treatment.


Diagnosis

Diagnostic tests are planned and performed on the lines of underlying condition that has resulted in Pyometra. If prevailing tuberculosis is causing symptoms of pyometra, diagnosis can be confirmed by tuberculin testing, histology, Hysterosalpingogram or PCR. Ultrasound scan, CT scan and MRI are generally recommended to diagnose the condition. Doppler scanning is used when pyometra has occurred due to endometrial cancer. X-ray shows the presence of spontaneous perforation of the uterus.


Treatment

Dilatation of the cervix and pus drainage is the treatment of choice, and it is important to rule out the possibility of cancer and differentiate the malignancy. However regular monitoring is necessary to look for recurrence. In few cases, Hysterectomy may be advised to avoid future complications. Medicine therapy with antibiotics becomes necessary if there is an infection. Tubercular pyometra should is treated with appropriate anti-tubercular chemotherapy.


Osteoporosis

Literally meaning 'porous bones', osteoporosis is a medical condition that is characterized by fragile skeletal structure. Osteoporosis threatens nearly 34 million women in the US alone and many more worldwide. Osteoporosis is commonly noticed in post-menopausal women. But actual loss of bone mass happens in the 30s. This occurs due to loss of lose an excessive amount of their protein and mineral content, particularly calcium from the bones. Over time it leads to reduced bone mass and decreased bone strength. Normal bone marrow has small holes within it, but a bone with osteoporosis will have much larger holes. Osteoporosis can be classified into two categories - primary and secondary. Primary osteoporosis is associated with bone loss, which is prevalent in older persons and post menopause women. Secondary osteoporosis results from chronic conditions that contribute significantly to accelerated bone loss.


Most often osteoporosis is caused by a combination of lifestyle, genetic and hormonal factors. Slender, small-framed women are particularly at risk. Typical symptoms of osteoporosis are severe back pain, curvature of the spine and loss of height. A woman suffering from osteoporosis suffers from joint aches and muscle aches. There is an increased tendency to fractures on account of brittle and thin bones. Osteoporosis can be hereditary. Women with very thin body frames can be at increased risk of osteoporosis on account of lesser bone mass. Prolonged use of corticosteroids can put a woman at increased risk of osteoporosis since drugs such as prednisone, cortisone, prednisolone and dexamethasone damage bone mass. Other medications that can lead to bone loss are diuretics, anti-seizure drugs and anticoagulants. Hyperthyroidism is another contributory factor to developing osteoporosis. Chronic conditions such as renal failure, malnutrition and connective tissue diseases contribute towards development of osteoporosis.


Diagnosis of osteoporosis may include a series of tests such as bone densitometry (a bone density scan) performed by your physician. There are three types of bone density scans: dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), single photon absorptiometry (SPA), and quantitative computed tomography (QCT). The most common bone density scan is the DEXA - a test that measures bone density based on how bone absorbs two sets of photons (atomic particles with no electrical charge) generated by an x-ray tube. A bone density test is recommended by physicians to post menopausal women, especially those with a higher risk factor.


It is essential to build on your bone mass during the ages of 25 - 35 so as to keep osteoporosis at bay. This can be done by maintaining a balanced diet, with plenty of calcium and following a regular exercise regimen. Weight-bearing exercises are of special importance in strengthening the bones. Running, skipping, aerobics, tennis and weight training are ideal osteoporosis exercises that can be undertaken thrice a week for at least 30 minutes. Apart from bone density, these exercises also increase the strength, co-ordination and balance, thereby reducing the risk of falls. A sedentary lifestyle can put you at increased risk of developing osteoporosis in latter years.

  • Consuming a balanced diet, rich in calcium
  • Eating green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, dairy products, nuts and shellfish
  • Calcium supplements
  • Avoid smoking and excess alcohol intake

Testosterone Patch - Woman's Viagra

Decreasing libido is a common complaint among many women, especially those who are in the menopausal phase. Women who are on HRT during their menopausal and post-menopausal phase may not face this problem. Testosterone is a male sex hormone, though women produce small quantities of it too. It is crucial in maintaining their sex drive. HSDD (Hypoactive sexual desire disorder) is noticed in women, due to a variety of reasons. Menopause, surgical removal of ovaries, marital problems or other causes can result in low sex drive. Antidepressants are also known to reduce sexual desire. Reduced testosterone levels are a common reason.

The testosterone patch has shown a significant increase in sex drive among the women who participated in a study. There was considerable improvement in various areas of sexual functions such as arousal, responsiveness and orgasm. The women reported increased sexual activity and improved overall psychological well-being on usage of the testosterone patch. But the testosterone patch works on women who have lowered levels of testosterone which can be determined by blood tests. Decreased sex drive on account of other issues may need other forms of treatment.


Side Effects of testosterone patch: Testosterone patch side effects range from increased body hair and irritation on the patch site to URI.


Dosage of Testosterone patch:

The thin transparent testosterone patch is worn on the stomach for two weeks at a time. Intrinsa - the testosterone patch that is being tested and developed is considered to be a wonder treatment for women who have suffered from lowered sex drive on account of lower testosterone levels. A slow-release testosterone patch is also on the anvil.

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Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: November 22, 2019