Peptic ulcer disease
A person is affected by peptic ulcer disease when there is an open sore in the stomach lining or duodenum. When the ulcer is located in the stomach, it is gastric ulcer while an ulcer found in the duodenum is a duodenal ulcer and an ulcer in the esophagus is an esophageal ulcer. Some of the causes of peptic ulcers are H. pylori bacteria and NSAIDs like aspirin and ibuprofen. Peptic ulcers are not caused by spicy food or alcohol or smoking. But they can worsen existing ulcers. While stress and personality types can worsen a peptic ulcer but it may not be cause for one. Often chronic ulcers are due to gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Persons suffering from peptic ulcer disease feel a dull ache that keeps coming and going. Typically the pain is felt when the stomach is empty. Vomiting and nausea are other symptoms of peptic ulcer disease. In severe cases, the patient suffering from peptic ulcer disease has black, tarry stools and unexplained weight loss. There might be blood in vomit. Upper GI Endoscopy and x-rays of the stomach can help diagnose peptic ulcer disease. Antibiotics are used to destroy bacteria that cause peptic ulcer disease. Antacids help in neutralizing the acid in the stomach. H2 Blockers are medication that control the production of acid thereby allowing the body time to heal.
Barium Swallow or Upper GI series is a radiological test that allows visual examination of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum and small intestine. Nothing should be eaten for about 6 hours prior to the test. Typically, double contrast barium swallow is used. The patient is made to swallow a barium drink after swallowing an effervescent agent. The barium creates a temporary coating on the lining of the upper GI tract. Then he is asked to stand and lie in different positions to spread the liquid. An x-ray machine then takes pictures. Fluoroscopy is often used during a barium swallow.
After this test, patients are asked to drink extra fluids and water to relieve the bowels of the barium. Constipation or fecal impaction may occur if the barium isn't completely eliminated from the body. This diagnostic test is used for detecting dysphagia, hernia, peptic ulcer disease, GERD (Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease), achalasia, generalized epigastric pain and suspected perforation.
Barium Swallow Test
Barium sulfate is a popular compound used in the diagnostic investigation of abnormalities of internal organs. This test is used to investigate issues of upper gastrointestinal tract. Most cases in this diagnostic category include abnormalities associated with esophagus and the digestive system. Barium swallowing procedure determines the presence of anatomical abnormalities such as narrowing of the esophagus, abnormal growths such as cancer, tumors, polyps and also for the presence of foreign objects as a result of ingestion. Barium swallow test also helps in the identification of conditions such as hiatal hernia. In this condition, the upper portion of the stomach protrudes into the chest cavity through the diaphragm opening called esophageal hiatus.
Preparation for Barium swallow test
Since barium swallow is a radiological procedure, patients are usually advised not to take any food the night before the test. This enables the radiologist to analyze and discover underlying abnormalities in the gastro intestinal tract. Presence of food particles can mask the diagnosis to a great extent. The radiologist may make general enquiry to ensure that the patient is not pregnant or on insulin. Before the test is performed, the patient is advised to drink a milky liquid. This liquid contains barium sulfate. Many patients complain about the chalky taste of this liquid.
In some cases, it induces nausea. In addition to the barium sulfate liquid, the patient is also advised to take few pills that produce bubbles or effervescence. The effervescence induced by the pills is necessary to facilitate the air in to the stomach to view the structures carefully. Patients are advised not to belch although the procedure induces it. This enables the radiologist to identify the underlying disorders better. The risks associated with barium swallow test are minimal. One of the most common side effects of this test is constipation. Other conditions include anaphylactic reactions and aspiration in which the ingested barium enters the windpipe. The entire procedure may last around 30 minutes. Fluoroscopy is often used during a barium swallow.
Barium enema is advised for patients who experience difficulties in bowel movements and also associated conditions such as weight loss and anemia. Barium sulfate is administered through the anus by using a tube to investigate the bowel disorders in the patient. This radiological examination gives a complete picture of the bowel beginning from the colon to the large intestine. Abnormalities such as colon cancer, polyps, peptic ulcer disease, GERD (Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease), achalasia, strictures and tumors can be identified with this method. Drugs such as buscopan are given to the patients to relax the bowel.
Patients are advised not consume any solid foods or milk products as it may hinder the diagnosis. The recommended diet for the patients undergoing this test is usually clear fluids and juices. Although the test has minimal side effects, many patients experience the inconvenience of cramping during the procedure. The intensity of cramping varies from person to person. Bowel relaxation drugs are administered to prevent unprecedented events during the procedure. During the procedure, patients often experience the urge to defecate which has to be controlled in order to obtain proper diagnosis of the bowel. One of the significant risk factors associated with this procedure is the leakage of barium from previously perforated colon. The side effects of the leaking barium from the colon can be fatal. Hence, thorough preparation is done before the test to ensure and minimize the risk factors. Pregnant women are not advised to do this procedure. After this test, patients are asked to drink extra fluids and water to relieve the bowels of the barium.
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Bibliography / Reference
Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: April 23, 2019