TargetWoman Condensed Health Information

Lyme Disease

Lyme Disease is a bacterial infection transmitted by deer ticks. Typically this disease is noticed in the Northeast, northern California and upper Midwest in the U.S. Lyme disease is also noticed in Europe, Asia and Australia. Ticks latch on to the person and transmit the disease-producing bacteria such as Borrelia burgdorferi. The bacteria passes through the bloodstream and produces symptoms that may resemble fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome or joint disorder.

Symptoms of Lyme Disease include a rash that can be noticed at the site of the tick bite. The red bumps are warm and tender to the touch. The rashes resemble a bull's eye. Patient suffering from Lyme Disease is likely to suffer flu-like symptoms along with the rashes. There is severe joint pain. Other symptoms of Lyme Disease include difficulty in concentration and remembering. The disease progressively affects the heart and central nervous system.

The ELISA test is used to detect Lyme disease. Other diagnostic tests include Western Blot test and Polymerase chain reaction test. Oral antibiotics such as doxycycline or amoxicillin are used to treat Lyme disease in the early stage. If the disease has progressed, intravenous antibiotic treatment may be required. Persons in tick-infected areas must cover themselves completely with long sleeves and pants. They must check for any attached ticks after going out. Remove any tick with a pair of tweezers and then disinfect the site of the bite. Use of repellant may help.

Powassan Disease

Powassan disease is spread by the bite of a tick. It is a very rare disease that spreads by the bite of infected ticks. The disease is named after a town where it was identified first. This virus is not directly transmitted from person to person.

The spread of the disease is mostly during the periods in the year when ticks breed. People who work outdoors and are involved in gardening, camping, hiking and in wooded environments are more at risk. Blood tests and testing the spinal fluid helps in diagnosing the disease. There is no specific treatment for the disease. Healthcare providers work towards providing relief from symptoms associated with the disease. There are no home remedies that can cure the disease other than using tick repellant.

The incubation period lasts between a week and a month. Symptoms tend to appear within 4 weeks from when the person has been bitten by the tick. Symptoms include mild flu, headaches, vomitting, confusion, seizures and loss of coordination. While this is life-threatening, memory loss and weakness can be permanent for some patients. The Powassan virus can lead to encephalitis and meningitis.

Powassan disease affects a tick that bites an infected mouse or other infected mammals. This tick in turn bites humans thus spreading the infection. Deer tick or the black-legged tick spread the infection to humans. This is the same tick that spreads Lyme Disease. No vaccines or anti-viral are available; prevention is the best method to keep away from the disease. Proper precaution helps reduce the exposure to Powassan disease.

This disease has been mostly reported in the US. Most cases were reported in the Northeast and Great Lakes regions of the US, especially during late spring and early summer. Health officials have asked people in these areas to take utmost precautions to avoid infection. This disease spreads

  • While venturing into high grasslands or vegetation make sure that you cover your body well. Ticks generally breed in these vegetation and stick/cling on to the human body when it brushes against the vegetation.

  • Tuck your shirt into your trousers/pants and pants into the socks. Ensure that there is no much skin exposure.

  • Wear light colored clothing so as to identify any ticks clinging to the dress.

  • Brush off ticks from the clothes before they get onto the skin.

  • Check frequently for ticks while outdoors.

  • Apply insect repellant appropriately.

  • Check for ticks in your pets and remove them.

Handling tick attached to clothes:

  • If you see a tick attached to your dress, make sure you remove it from the base using tweezers.

  • Do not squeeze the tick, or puncture the body of the tick as it may contain infected fluid, that when contracted can cause Powassan disease.

  • Pull the tick firmly in the upward direction.

  • Wash your hands thoroughly after removing the ticks.

  • Have a bath or shower so as to remove any ticks if present.


Paraesthesias, also spelled paresthesias, is a medical term that refers to abnormal sensations in the body, typically involving a feeling of tingling, pricking, numbness, or "pins and needles." These sensations are often described as uncomfortable or abnormal and may be experienced in various parts of the body, such as the hands, feet, arms, legs, or other areas.


Paraesthesias can be caused by a variety of underlying medical conditions or factors, including:

  • Nerve Compression or Irritation: Pressure on or damage to nerves, such as in conditions like carpal tunnel syndrome or sciatica, can lead to paraesthesias.
  • Nerve Disorders: Diseases that affect the nervous system, like peripheral neuropathy, multiple sclerosis, or diabetic neuropathy, can result in abnormal sensations.
  • Poor Circulation: Reduced blood flow to specific body parts can lead to paraesthesias, as tissues may not receive sufficient oxygen and nutrients.
  • Vitamin Deficiencies: Deficiencies in certain vitamins, particularly B vitamins like B12 and folate, can contribute to nerve-related symptoms, including paraesthesias.
  • Infections and Inflammatory Conditions: Conditions like shingles, Lyme disease, or autoimmune diseases can cause nerve inflammation and lead to abnormal sensations.
  • Medications and Toxins: Some medications or exposure to toxins can induce paraesthesias as a side effect.
  • Trauma or Injury: Physical injury or trauma to nerves or tissues can result in temporary or chronic paraesthesias.
  • Psychological Factors: In some cases, paraesthesias may be related to psychological stress or anxiety.

Some medications have the potential to affect the nervous system and cause these symptoms. It's important to note that individual responses to medications can vary, and not everyone will experience paraesthesias as a side effect. Here are some categories of medications and specific drugs that are known to be associated with paraesthesias:

  • Chemotherapy Drugs: Several chemotherapy agents, such as paclitaxel, vincristine, and cisplatin, can cause peripheral neuropathy, leading to paraesthesias in the hands and feet.
  • Anticonvulsant Medications: Some anticonvulsants, including phenytoin and carbamazepine, may cause paraesthesias as a side effect.
  • Antidepressant Medications: Tricyclic antidepressants like amitriptyline and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like fluoxetine have been associated with paraesthesias in some individuals.
  • Antiretroviral Drugs: Certain medications used to treat HIV, such as zidovudine and didanosine, may lead to peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesias.
  • Antibiotics: Some antibiotics, particularly fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin), have been linked to peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesias.
  • Antifungal Medications: Antifungal agents, such as fluconazole, can occasionally cause peripheral neuropathy and associated symptoms.
  • Antihypertensive Medications: Diuretics and calcium channel blockers are classes of drugs that may rarely induce paraesthesias.
  • Statins: Statin medications used to lower cholesterol levels, like atorvastatin and simvastatin, have been reported to cause muscle-related paraesthesias in a minority of users.
  • Immunomodulatory Drugs: Medications used for autoimmune diseases, like interferons and monoclonal antibodies, can result in paraesthesias.
  • Local Anesthetics: Certain local anesthetics used in medical or dental procedures may lead to temporary paraesthesias.

Vitamin B3, also known as Niacin, is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions, including energy metabolism and maintaining the health of the nervous system. While niacin deficiency can lead to neurological symptoms, including paraesthesias (abnormal sensations like tingling or numbness), it is rare in well-nourished individuals.

However, high doses of niacin, often used in the treatment of certain medical conditions like high cholesterol, can indeed cause paraesthesias as a side effect. This is a well-known side effect of niacin therapy and is commonly referred to as the "niacin flush." The niacin flush involves a warm, tingling sensation, often accompanied by redness and flushing of the skin, particularly on the face and upper body. Some people may describe it as a temporary, uncomfortable form of paraesthesias.

The niacin flush is usually harmless and transient, lasting for about 15-30 minutes after taking a high-dose niacin supplement. Over time, the body may develop some tolerance to this side effect. Nevertheless, individuals who experience severe or persistent paraesthesias or other adverse effects from niacin should consult their healthcare provider. It's important to take niacin supplements as directed by a healthcare professional, as high doses can have potential side effects, including liver toxicity, gastrointestinal disturbances, and other adverse reactions.

Diagnosis and management of paraesthesias typically involve a thorough medical history, physical examination, and, if necessary, further diagnostic tests such as nerve conduction studies, electromyography, blood tests, or imaging studies. The underlying cause of paraesthesias must be identified and treated accordingly. Management may involve addressing the primary medical condition, physical therapy, medication, or lifestyle changes to alleviate the abnormal sensations and improve the patient's overall well-being.

Tags: #Lyme Disease #Powassan Disease #Paraesthesias
Here is how it works

Enter your health or medical queries in our Artificial Intelligence powered Application here. Our Natural Language Navigational engine knows that words form only the outer superficial layer. The real meaning of the words are deduced from the collection of words, their proximity to each other and the context.

Check all your health queries

Diseases, Symptoms, Tests and Treatment arranged in alphabetical order:

TargetWoman holistic Health Application

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z

Popular Topics
Free Health App
Free Android Health App Free WebApp for iPhones

Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: July 22, 2024