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Grave's Disease

Grave's Disease is a condition caused by hyperactivity of the thyroid gland. Due to hyperthyroidism, a person appears nervous and anxious. This is due to the higher metabolic rate set by overactive thyroid. The body's immune system is triggered. Typically Grave's disease affects women in the age group of 20 - 40 years.


Symptoms of Grave's disease include enlarged thyroid gland, rapid heartbeat, nervousness, anxiety and difficulty in sleeping. A person suffering from Grave's disease experiences increased sensitivity to heat and moist skin. In cases of Graves' ophthalmopathy, the eyes may appear reddened or inflamed. There is increased sensitivity to light and the eyes may experience excessive tearing. Other symptoms of Grave's disease are weight loss without loss of appetite, bulging eyes and enlarged thyroid gland. Patient suffering from Grave's disease may have increased sweating, hand tremors and muscular weakness. Women may have infertility problems.


Blood levels of thyroid hormones - thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxinecan help in identifying Grave's disease. A short course of radioactive iodine helps in reducing the hyperactivity of the thyroid. This treatment shrinks the thyroid cells. Sometimes the thyroid is removed, in part or completely. Anti thyroid medications such as propylthiouracil and methimazole are prescribed to reduce the production of thyroid hormones.

Laparoscopy

Micro laparoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic surgical procedure. Laparoscopy enables the surgeon or a gynecologist to directly view the organs of the abdomen and pelvis. Laparoscopy minimizes hospital stay after surgery and recovery period too. Laparoscope is an instrument in the shape of a miniature telescope with a fiber optic system. The laparoscope is a sterile surgical instrument, which has special optics that allows small amounts of light to be transmitted effectively. A laparoscopy involves two cuts approximately 5 -10 cm long. The first cut is below the navel. A hollow needle is inserted. Carbon dioxide gas is pumped into the abdomen through this channel in the laparoscope. This is done to create a space within which the surgeon can look or operate.

The laparoscope is inserted through a second small cut made on the abdomen. The exact position depends upon the procedure that is being conducted. The laparoscope can be moved around within the abdominal or pelvic cavity to give several different views to the operating surgeon. At the end of the procedure, the instruments are removed and the carbon dioxide gas is allowed to escape and the cuts closed with stitches.


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Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: November 19, 2019