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Coenzyme Q10

Nutrient, antioxidant and vitamin-like compound Coenzyme Q 10 occurs naturally in the body. CoQ10 is present in all cells of our body. The highest amount of Coenzyme Q10 is present in mitochondria, the part of the cell where energy is produced. Cells use CoQ10 to produce energy the body needs for cell growth and maintenance. CoQ10 acts as an anti-oxidant, protects the body from damage caused by harmful molecules. It plays a critical role in the formation of ATP, the fundamental energy unit. CoQ10 plays a part in maintaining the proper pH of lysosomes, digestive component of cells.


Importance of Coenzyme Q10

Deficiency or lower levels of CoQ10 levels may result in low energy levels, physical and mental fatigue, chronic pain (frequent headaches, migraines, jaw pain or muscle and joint aches), gum disease, diabetes, increased risk of developing Fibromyalgia, a weak immune system, increased risk of heart disease and obesity and neurological disorders. Coenzyme Q10 helps in optimum functioning of the body as it has a role in producing ATP, a crucial chemical in human metabolism because the cells use it as a direct source of energy.

CoQ10 improves the effectiveness of exercise as it increases oxygen utilization and stimulates fat metabolism. Combining Coenzyme Q10 with regular aerobic exercise significantly improves fat release and thus assists in weight loss. For a healthy young skin, cells should continue energy production and extend the antioxidant power. Taking Coenzyme Q10 rejuvenates the cell's efficiency. The antioxidant property of Coenzyme Q10 acts against oxidative damage. It aids to get rid of dead skin cells and also help in the regeneration of the skin.


Coenzyme Q10 helps in fighting gum disease. Coenzyme Q10 helps maintain heart health. Intake of Coenzyme Q10 helps in normalizing blood pressure. Coenzyme Q10 ensures brain-cell energy production. The antioxidant property prevents damage from oxidative stress, an impact of aging. So, degenerative neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's, muscular dystrophy, Huntington's and Parkinson's disease are prevented. Also, as an antioxidant coenzyme Q10 protect DNA from oxidative damage, an early sign of cancerous growth.

Gingivitis

Gingivitis involves inflammation of the gums surrounding the teeth. Due to this, the gums become soft and swollen and usually red instead of a healthy pink. The inflammation of the gums is a defense mechanism put up by the body's immune system to prevent the growth of bacteria which along with the remnant food particles and plaque form tartar. This cannot be removed by simple brushing or flossing.


What Causes Gingivitis Disease?

The primary cause of gum disease is plaque. However, there are various other reasons why gingivitis disease develops.


  • Gums become sensitive when there are hormonal changes in the body, such as during puberty, pregnancy, menopause and menstruation. During pregnancy, hormonal changes and tartar induce excessive growth of gum tissues resulting in the formation of lumps commonly referred to as pregnancy tumors. These tumors prevent bacteria from being removed effectively during brushing, thus resulting in gingivitis disease.

  • In post-menopausal women, a painful condition called desquamative gingivitis may develop, for reasons yet unknown. In this condition, the outer layers of the gums come away from the teeth and lose their solidity, resulting in the exposure of nerve-endings which causes acute pain.

  • Long-term use of contraceptive pills can also result in gingivitis.

  • Diseases that affect the immune system such as HIV or cancer may also affect the gums. Diabetes when uncontrolled, can affect the gums. On the other hand, gingivitis disease may also be a pointer to systemic disorders.

  • Some medications can also cause gum disease as they restrict production of saliva which prevent the formation of tartar. Some medications used in the treatment of angina and seizures can cause abnormal growth of the tissues in the gums.

  • Habits, such as smoking, do not facilitate the easy self-repair of the gums. A severe form of gingivitis, known as Trench mouth or ANUG (Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis) is mostly found in the case of smokers. ANUG is also reported in the case of incapacitated persons under severe stress. Acute pain, swelling, bleeding and bad breath develop very quickly in this condition and also the gums turn grey.

  • If gingivitis runs in the family, then there is a greater chance of a person getting it. Poor oral hygiene is a major contributor to gingivitis.

  • Dental appliances not properly fitted or improper alignment of teeth may also cause gingivitis.

  • Dietary imbalances, vitamin deficiencies, and drug reactions can also result in gingivitis.

  • Gingivitis disease is also often caused by fungal and viral infections.


Symptoms of gingivitis

There is usually no pain associated with mild form of gingivitis. Hence it may go unnoticed. However, there are certain symptoms that warn that treatment for gingivitis is needed:


  • When the gums are swollen, soft, or red.

  • When gums bleed during, or after brushing.

  • When bad breath or bad taste in the mouth persists even after brushing and flossing.

  • When the gums recede.

  • Deep pockets are formed between teeth and gums.

  • Visible deposits of tartar.



If the dentist finds that someone is particularly prone to formation of plaque, he may recommend use of special implements to remove plaque, such as toothpicks, electric toothbrushes etc. This treatment for gingivitis would suffice when the gingivitis disease is in the early stages.

For reducing the pocket depth between teeth and gums, which can also cause gingivitis, dentists undertake root-planing and scaling. In addition dentists may also administer minocycline microspheres. For women who have desquamatic gingivitis, hormone replacement therapy could be beneficial. However, adverse effects of the therapy could prevent their recommendation. Instead, corticosteroid rinses and pastes which can be directly applied on gums may be more commonly recommended.

Pericoronitis is acute, painful inflammation of the gingival tissue over a partly erupted tooth (as in the case of a wisdom tooth). The treatment for this would include removal of the debris beneath the gingival flap and irrigation with saline. This may be followed up with extraction, particularly when there is recurrence of the episode.


Panoramic X ray

The Panoramic x-ray or Panorex as it was initially called is considered the 'work horse' of dentistry. The Panorex is a large single x ray film that shows the entire bony structure of the teeth and the face. It covers a much wider area than a traditional intra oral film showing structures outside of their range including sinuses, temperomandibular joints as well as the position of the wisdom teeth. The panoramic x ray has the ability to scan the region of oral pharynx and surrounding tissues thereby increasing the dentist's diagnostic capabilities. The uninterrupted panoramic film is the most commonly used for obtaining clearly portrayed image of orofacial structures in dentistry. Other dental X-rays include:

Bitewing x ray uses the least amount of radiation. It shows the upper and lower back teeth in a single view. They are used to detect decay between the teeth and to show how well the upper and lower teeth line up. Bitewing also indicates bone loss and the presence of severe gum disease or dental infection.

Periapical x rays show the entire supportive system of the tooth from the exposed crown to the end of the root and bones. They are used to detect dental problems below the gum line or the jaw. They also help to detect impacted teeth.

Panoramic x rays belong to the broad category of x rays called tomographs. The amount of radiation needed to expose a panoramic film is about the same as the radiation needed to expose two intra oral films. It is advised to use lead apron during panoramic x ray. In panoramic x ray, the x ray source passes around the patient and behind their head at a slight upward angle. Use of a lead apron helps in optimal prevention of the patient's body from scatter radiation of the panoramic x ray beam. Special panoramic lead aprons are available that cover both the back and front of the patient without interfering with the path of the X ray beam.


  • Cysts, tumors, bone irregularities are also revealed in panoramic x ray.

  • Impacted teeth that may be buried deep inside the jaw bone are shown in panoramic x ray.

  • Panoramic x ray is usually taken when the wisdom teeth (third molars) are being evaluated.

  • Panoramic x ray is used in dental implant surgery as it clearly reveals the possible complications in mandibular nerves.

  • Panoramic x ray can also identify some not so common problems such as calcification within the carotid artery that may be indicative of a potential stroke.

  • Panoramic films are especially good for forensic purposes in the identification of otherwise unrecognizable bodies after plane crashes or mishaps.


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Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: June 24, 2019