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Oligomenorrhea

Oligomenorrhea refers to infrequent or short menstrual periods where frequency exceeds 35 days in between menstrual cycles resulting in about 4 - 9 menstrual periods in a year. This condition is common in women approaching menopause or adolescents.

Causes of Oligomenorrhea


  • Hormonal changes in perimenopause
  • Stress and illness
  • Eating disorders such as Anorexia nervosa and Bulimia
  • PCOS
  • Women athletes on anabolic steroids

Diagnosis of Oligomenorrhea

After a physical examination and blood test to check thyroid functioning, a woman might have to undergo pelvic ultrasound. Pelvic MRI is done in case of tumors. Blood tests to check levels of reproductive hormones is done.

Obsessive compulsive disorder

The exact cause of obsessive compulsive behavior is yet to be established. On the basis of some studies and research carried so far, possible causes include any one or a combination of two.


Genetics (family history): Multiple genes passed on through generations are likely to affect the sufferer whose close relative is diagnosed with OCD as well. The genetic connection proves to be higher if the onset of OCD is before age 14. Identical twins have a 70% chance of sharing the disorder.

Illness: If the person is suffering from other anxiety disorder like depression, , substance abuse disorder, a personality disorder, attention deficit disorder, he or she is most likely to experience a high level of anxiety. Certain auto immune diseases such as Sydenham's chorea, rheumatic fever, pediatric streptococcal infection may also cause obsessive compulsive disorder.

Serotonin Hypothesis: People diagnosed with OCD are believed to have abnormally low levels of brain chemical, the serotonin which helps carry messages from one nerve cell to another. This imbalance may interfere with the normal biological processes including mood, sleep, appetite, impulse control, aggression and pain.

Structural brain differences: Abnormalities in several parts of the brains including the thalamus, caudate nucleus, orbital cortex and cingulated gyrus may also be a cause for OCD.


OCD traits

The disorder is clearly visible right from early childhood. Check for one or more of the following traits which are generally associated with time, dirt, relationship and money. Unless and until the individual has trouble leading a normal life due to any or all of these traits, it is not diagnosed as a disorder.


  • Keeping home perfectly organized.

  • Extreme attention to details, rules, lists, orderliness even if it results in waste of time and doesn't result in completion of proposed activity.

  • Exhibiting over perfectionism which interferes with task completion.

  • Is a workaholic, overly devoted to work and productivity.

  • Unwilling to delegate work as

  • Highly rigid and stubborn.

  • Leading a miserly spending style, self and others. Hoards money fearing future catastrophes.

Treating OCD

If left unattended, OCD can have devastating effects both in personal life and at the workplace. Normal life can be completely marred. Most importantly, individuals with OCD are close to acknowledging the need for help as compared to those affected with OCPD who do not conceive it as a problem, hence do not seek help until or unless someone forces the issue.

Antidepressant medications and behavior therapy are effectively used in treating OCD. Medication other than certain antidepressants is rarely prescribed. Instead individual psychotherapy or counseling helps treat OCPD. With family support and an empathetic attitude by those in contact, improvement is evident within few weeks of professional assistance.


Hypokalemia

Low potassium level in the blood is referred to as hypokalemia. Potassium is an electrolyte that is essential to ensure the proper functioning of muscle and nerve cells, in particular the heart muscle cells. Potassium is a vital mineral in the body as it helps the muscles contract when required. Almost 98% of the potassium found in our body is present within the cells. The small levels present outside have a major influence in the functioning of the heart, muscles and nerves.


Normal potassium level in the blood is 3.6 to 5.2 millimoles per liter. Anything less than 2.5 millimoles per liter could indicate low level potassium in the blood. The condition may arise from reduced intake of potassium or from increased loss of potassium from the body.


Blood tests can confirm this condition in a person. Oral supplements or in severe cases, intravenous medication helps. In many cases oral supplements would do the needful; however this could lower the thyroid hormone levels and raise the potassium levels thus leading to paralysis of the body. A few patients may also experience irregular heartbeat which may turn fatal. The condition is more common in men and in women and occurs more often in elderly people.

Consuming a potassium rich diet by including food items like banana, carrots, bran, avocados, oranges, milk, spinach, wheat germ, peas and beans may help prevent the condition. Common causes include:


  • Chronic kidney failure, as kidney plays a vital role in removing excess potassium into the urine and maintaining proper balance of this mineral in the body.
  • Eating disorders like bulimia
  • Magnesium deficiency
  • Sweating excessively
  • Diarrhea
  • Excessive use of laxatives
  • Vomiting
  • Alcoholism
  • Use of insulin

Hypokalemia symptoms include nausea, abdominal pain, cramps, dehydration, frequent urination, palpitations and confusion.

Tags: #Oligomenorrhea #Obsessive compulsive disorder #Hypokalemia
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Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: September 24, 2020