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Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 or non-insulin dependent diabetes is more commonly noticed. This is caused due to insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas or when the body is unable to regulate the amount of glucose in the blood. Complications of type 2 diabetes include coronary heart disease, renal failure, diabetic neuropathy and failing eyesight. Diabetes Type 2 is also referred to as late-onset diabetes.


Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 develops when the patient's body becomes insulin-resistant. Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes include blurred vision, weight loss and excessive thirst and fatigue. Yeast infection and fungal infections are common. Weight reduction can go a long way in maintaining blood sugar levels. Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Sedentary lifestyle and obesity also increase a person's chances of diabetes type 2. Often this type of diabetes is hereditary. Persons with excessive abdominal fat are more prone to developing diabetes type 2. Hypertension and high blood cholesterol increases a person's risk of diabetes mellitus type 2.


Blood tests for glucose tolerance help in detecting diabetes mellitus type 2. In some cases, patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2 are able to control their condition with diet and exercise. Follow a diet that is low in saturated fat, salt and sugar. Instead opt for high fiber vegetables and fruits. Antidiabetic medications (sulphonylureas) are prescribed for diabetic patients to increase the production of insulin and improve its efficiency. These include glibenclamide and glipizide. Insulin injections are resorted to when all these measures fail to reduce blood sugar levels.

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by high blood sugar. Referred to as diabetes, this disease affects millions worldwide. Left untreated, diabetes can lead to blindness, diabetic neuropathy and kidney failure. Diabetes is most often a chronic medical condition that needs constant monitoring and control. Diabetes can be of 2 types - Type 1 and diabetes type 2. Type 1 diabetes is called juvenile-onset diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. Complications that can arise with Type 1 diabetes are hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Left untreated, it can lead to ketoacidosis.


Often this type of diabetes is inherited. Diabetes mellitus type 1 is seen in children and young adults. A person suffering from diabetes type 1 is insulin dependent. Diabetes mellitus type 1 is characterized by insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas. This can occur due to an auto immune condition or it can also be idiopathic in nature. Insulin is critical to the absorption of sugar by the body. As a result, blood and urine levels of sugar rise. Type 1 diabetes also affects fat metabolism. While most cases of type 1 diabetes have a genetic predisposition, certain environmental factors trigger it off.


Symptoms of diabetes type 1 are excessive thirst and urination. Other symptoms include blurred vision, dramatic weight loss, irritability, weakness and fatigue. Diabetes mellitus type 1 leads to excessive hunger. Girls may notice vaginal yeast infection. A doctor may prescribe changes in eating habits and maintenance of body weight. Regular exercise regimen is suggested to keep diabetes under check. Daily dose of insulin is needed for persons who suffer type 1 diabetes. Persons suffering from this form of diabetes are advised to monitor blood levels of sugar as well as urine levels of ketone.


Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus or DI has nothing to do with diabetes mellitus or sugar diabetes. Diabetes insipidus is a condition that is characterized by intense thirst and polyuria or excretion of large amounts of urine. In sharp contrast to diabetes mellitus which results in sweet tasting urine, diabetes insipidus creates watery, flavor-free urine.

DI is a condition that occurs when the kidneys cannot conserve water when they perform their function of filtering blood. In other words, DI is a condition in which the body cannot retain enough water, a peculiar condition as the patient is excessively thirsty and excretes large amounts of extremely diluted urine. Significantly, a reduction in fluid intake does not reduce amounts and consistency of urine excretion. About 1 in every 25,000 people is affected by this condition in the US.

Diabetes Insipidus Classification

Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus, when there is a deficiency of ADH (Anti Diuretic Hormone)
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus, when kidneys are insensitive to ADH and
Gestational Diabetes Insipidus, which is very rare DI that occurs during pregnancy.

Antidiuretic hormone, ADH, also called vasopressin, is produced in the hypothalamus region of the brain. Lack of ADH causes central diabetes insipidus. Similarly, DI caused by a failure of kidneys to respond to ADH is called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.


Causes and symptoms of central diabetes insipidus

Any damage to the pituitary gland as a result of possible head injury, infection, loss in the supply of blood to the gland, surgery and tumor can cause central diabetes insipidus. In some cases, it could be hereditary. Symptoms of DI are excessive thirst and excessive urination. Other common symptoms include Nocturia, bed wetting and feeling run down.

Diagnosis of Diabetes Insipidus

MRI of the head, urine analysis and urine output are the diagnostic tests performed to detect DI. Water deprivation test is done, when the patient stops drinking liquids for about two to three hours before starting the test. The doctor measures the alterations in body weight and urine output and composition. Urine analysis is done when the physical chemical content of urine is examined. If urine water content is high and salt and waste concentrations are low, then the patient suffers diabetes insipidus. ADH hormone test after the water deprivation test is done, and the doctor gives a small dose of ADH usually in the form of injection, to study how the patient reacts to the hormone. Genetic screening is recommended if an inherited form of DI is suspected.

Treatment of DI

Vasopressin, either as tablets or as nasal spray is prescribed for central diabetes insipidus. As such, if treated, diabetes insipidus does not cause severe problems or reduce life expectancy. To combat the dehydration problem caused by DI, enough fluids should be consumed. This will offset the effects caused on body fluid or salt balance. If enough fluid is not taken, it can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.


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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: August 24, 2019